Question Answer
Bio History is a new field that? is used to understand the human experience using biology to explain human behavior and cultural traditions.
According to scientific research- the universe is around how old? 13.7 Billion years
The Big bang theory? Began as big explosion that resulted from a submicroscopic/dense/hot knot of energy that flew outward in all directions-giving rise to radiation/matter. The force of gravity drew the matter to denser regions-over billions of years became the universe.
The universe is still? expanding- but we do not know if it will continue to expand- or will reverse and collapse.
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 1. Life first originated in the form of microorganisms capable of surviving extreme heat- and then later in the ocean
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 2. Simple one-celled organisms then developed in the ocean with the ability to reproduce.
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 3. Those organisms then grew in complexity and gave rise to plants and animals
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 4. When plants could survive on dry land then the environment was ready to house living things such as reptiles- birds- small mammals.
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 5. Mammals were adaptable and survived great climate changes.
Explain the steps of evolution as thought by scientist and the big bang theory-Step 6. Primates took to life in the trees and then began the evolutionary process that culminated in the emergence of humans"
Evolution functions through the process of? natural selection
Mendel found that inherited traits are either? dominant or recessive
Traits are never blended- nor do they disappear completely. Dominant ones are expressed- and the recessive ones may wait several generations before reappearing.
Variation in species is caused by? mutation- gene flow- genetic drift- and migration
A process that intervenes to ensure that organisms achieve an adjustment to their environment that is beneficial. adaptation
A pre-human who lived from about 4.5 million to 1 million years ago. Australopithecus
Carriers of genes- or the hereditary blueprints of organisms. chromosomes
Each human inherits a set of how many chromosomes from each parent 23 chromosomes from each parent
The closest predecessors or perhaps contemporaries of modern humans- who lived about 35000 years ago. They were toolmakers- artists- and communal. Cro-Magnon
Change in gene frequencies is promoted because an adaptation to a new environment is needed. directional selection
A complex biochemical substance that is the basic building block of life. It determines the inheritance of specific traits. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
Period of sexual receptivity and ability to conceive estrus
A theory that explains change in living organisms and variation within species. Evolution
Evolution functions according to processes of? natural selection- mutation- genetic drift- gene flow- and speciation
The movement of genes from one gene pool to another. It results in new combinations of genes in the offspring gene flow
The proportion in which the various genes occur in an inbreeding population gene frequency
All of the genetic material available to a population to be inherited by the next generation gene pool
Hereditary units that transmit an individual's traits. They are contained in the chromosomes and made up of DNA genes
The fluctuations of frequencies of specific traits in a small- isolated population- so that visible differences between an isolated population and the population from which it broke away become obvious. genetic drift
The science of heredity genetics
The actual genetic composition of an organism- which is not necessarily expressed. genotype
Pre-human creatures who walked on two feet hominids
The upright hominid thought to be a direct ancestor of modern humans Homo Erectus
A species whose fossils date back 75000 years and includes Neanderthals. Homo Sapiens
A permanent change in genetic material mutation
A process of evolution in which random traits are tested for their survival value; the successful traits are passed on- while organisms possessing less successful traits eventually become extinct. natural selection
A subspecies of Homo Sapiens whose fossil remains date from 70000 to 35000 years ago. They are known to have buried their dead. Neanderthal
The physical- or outward- appearance of an organism phenotype
An order of mammals to which monkeys- apes- and humans belong primates
A hominoid having hominid like features- dated between 14 and 8 million years ago Ramapithecus
When natural selection promotes the status quo rather than change- because change would be detrimental to the organism's adaptation to its environment. stabilizing selection
The most important product of the interaction that occurs in groups- especially in societies- is? culture
Defined as the way of life of a specific people. It acts as a guide for further social interaction- it is a blueprint for living. culture
The most basic element of culture is? language
a system of symbols that allows people to accumulate knowledge and transmit it without relying on personal experience. language
the smallest unit of culture is? traits
a number of related traits culture complexes
Formal systems of beliefs and behavior- composed of interrelated norms and culture complexes? Institutions
The structure of culture consists of??(three levels) 1. Traits 2. Culture Complexes 3. Institutions
Five basic institutions common to all human societies? GREEF 1. Government 2. Religion 3. Economy 4. Education 5. Family
A group that possesses a value system and goals that are in direct opposition to those of the larger society? counterculture
an attitude of judging each culture on its own terms and in the context of its own societal setting cultural relativity
similarities common to all cultures cultural universals
the way of life of people in society. The totality of what is learned and shared by the members of a society through their interactions. The product of social interaction and a guide for further interaction. It includes material and nonmaterial aspects. culture
A number of related traits that accumulate around a specific human activity. culture complex
The attitude that one's own culture is right and that cultural patterns different from it are wrong. ethnocentrism
Norms that direct behavior in everyday situations; customary and habitual ways of acting. folkways
a number of culture complexes clustering around a central human activity. Institutions
formal codes of behavior- binding on the whole society; they outline behavior that deviates from the norm and define prescriptions for punishing it. laws
norms that direct behavior considered either extremely harmful or extremely helpful to society. They define the rightness or wrongness of an act- its morality or immorality- and is punished by society. mores
a system of rules regulating human behavior. normative system
behavioral standards that dictate conduct in both informal and formal situations; a set of behavioral expectations. norms
rewards (positive) or punishment (negative) directed at individuals or groups by either legal and formal organizations- or the people with whom one interacts- to encourage or discourage specific types of behavior. sanctions
Biologically determined and genetically transmitted responses to outside stimuli. signals
the process by which order is maintained within society through obedience to norms- folkways- mores- taboos- and laws. social control
a group that has distinctive features that set it apart from the culture of the larger society but still retains the general values of mainstream society. subculture
A word or image standing for an object or a feeling. Symbols are learned and can be changed- modified- combined- and recombined in an infinite number of ways. Language- music- and art are common symbol systems. symbols
mores stated in negative terms. They center on acts considered extremely repellent to the social group. taboos
a position attained through individual effort or merit. achieved status
a number of people who are in the same place at the same time- but who do not interact with one another. aggregate
an inherited position- one that is not attained through individual effort or merit. ascribed status
the hierarchical system of administration prevailing within a formal organization. The hierarchy depends on job specialization- a set of rules and standards to promote uniformity- and an attitude of impersonal impartiality. bureaucracy
The smallest type of group- consisting of two members. dyad
a small homogeneous- communal- and traditional society. Relationships among members are personal- informal- and face-to-face- and behavior is dictated by tradition. gemeinschaft
a large- heterogeneous society- typified by the modern industrial state. Relationships among members tend to be impersonal- formal- contractual- functional- and specialized. Also called an associational society. gesellschaft
group in which the individual belongs and which confers on the individuals social identity in-group
group to which others belong- excluding the individual defining group membership. out-group
The sat_flash_1 of the social system- consisting of statuses- roles- groups- norms- and institutions social structure
sat_flash_1 of the social structure/system. SR GIN Status- Role- Group- Institutions- Norms
The largest social group. society
Communication through speech- gestures- writing- or even music. symbolic interaction
An extreme type of coercive organization that isolates individuals from the rest of society. total institution
a group consisting of three individuals triad
A social movement reflecting the dissat_flash_1 of people who believe that change is occurring too rapidly and want to stop or reverse it. Change-Resistant Movement
A revolutionary social movement in which one ruling class is replaced with another in the same society. Class revolutionary movement
A process of cultural change in which cultural traits are spread from one society to another diffusion
A process of cultural change in which an already existing fact or relationship is newly perceived discovery
A deliberate attempt to persuade people to uncritically accept a particular belief or to make a certain choice propaganda
A thin film of air- water- and soil surrounding the earth Biosphere
The study of the growth or decline of populations- their distribution throughout the world- and their composition Demography
The study of the relationship between living organisms and their environment Ecology
A contained system of living and nonliving entities- and the manner they interact and maintain balance that permits life to continue Ecosystem
The biological potential for producing off-spring Fecundity
The average number of births per 1-000 women between ages 15 and 44 Fertility Rate
The number of Births per 1-000 persons in a specific population year Birthrate
The number of deaths per 1-000 persons in a specific population year Death Rate or Mortality Rate
The rate that reflects the number of deaths among infants under age 1 for every 1-000 live births infant mortality
A complex in which one metropolitan area follows another without interruption. Urban Sprawl Megalopolis
The tendency of suburbs- small cities- and surrounding rural areas to cluster around a central city and be considered a single unit. metropolitanization
The ratio of people to land area population density
A graphic expression of the age and sex distribution of a given population Population Pyramid
Another term for the extended family – The way parents are related to children – that is blood ties Consanguine
Belief that many objects in the world are inhabited by spirits Animism
A church to which a substantial majority of the population belongs. Ecclesia
A concept according to which there exists a supernatural force that can attach to any person- object or event Mana
Belief in the existence of one God Monotheism
A large university- consisting of a number of campuses around the state Multiversity
Belief in the existence of more than one god Polytheism
The objects and events of everyday life that are common- usual- explainable- and repetitive Profane
Rituals established around critical times of growth and maturation; birth- puberty- marriage- death Rights of Passage
The grouping of students according to their ability Tracking
Idea that treating something as if it is will cause it to be. Treat students as bright they will perform as bright students Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
An ideology opposed to democracy – in which government rests in the hands of one person Autocracy
Type of autocracy in which power is held by a dictator- absolute monarch- or small elite. Authoritarianism
A type of authority based on the leadership of a person with charisma charismatic authority
Political and economic ideology whose goal is total government control leading to a classless society Communism
An ideology- philosophy- and political system assuming the basic value of the individual- and his or her rationality- morality- equality- and possession of specific rights. Democracy
A school of thought in modern psychology whose chief exponent was Jean Piaget. developmental theories
As per Freud- a part of the personality that functions on a conscious level. It attempts to force the id to satisfy its instinctual needs in socially acceptable ways. ego
As per Mead- The individual's perception or awareness of social norms; learning to take the role of all others with whom one interacts or of society as a whole. generalized other
As per Freud; The representative of the libido in the personality- existing on an unconscious level and making up the primitive- irrational part of the personality. id
Genetically transmitted- universal- complex- patterns- of behavior. instincts
As per Freud; The instinctual drive toward pleasure- which is the motivating energy behind human behavior. libido
As per Cooley The process of personality formation in which an individual's self-image emerges as a result of perceiving the observed attitudes of others.
What many people in middle adulthood experience when they reflect on their personal and occupational roles and find them wanting. midlife crisis
As per Mead The abstract whole of a person's ideas.
A theory of personality developed by Sigmund Freud. It assumes the existence of unconscious as well as conscious processes within each individual. psychoanalytic theory
As per Freud The manner in which individuals attempt to gratify the force of the libido at different periods of physical maturation.
The phases of Freud's Psychosexual stages. GO PAL genital-oral-phallic(or Oedipal)-anal-latent
As per Mead The individuals self-conception or self-awareness.
The learning process by which a biological organism learns to become a human being- acquires a personality with self-identity- and absorbs the culture of society. socialization
As per Freud A final element of personality- existing largely on an unconscious level and functioning to impose inhibition and morality on the id.
A school of thought founded by George Mead whose theories center around the interrelationship of mind- self- and society and include the belief that society and the individual give rise to each other through symbolic interaction. Symbolic interactionism
Where was Piaget from? Switzerland
What was Piaget's profession before he became a psychologist? Biologist
Piaget's theory that children discover all knowledge through their own activity is described as a ___________. Constructivist Approach
Because Piaget's theory is in stages- it is known as what kind of development? Discontinuous
Piaget's theory characterizes children everywhere. This means his stages are ________. Universal
Piaget's theory always occurs in a fixed order- meaning they are _________. Invariant
The study of knowing and how we know is called __________. Epistemology
According to Piaget- specific psychological structures that organize ways of making sense of experience are called ___________. Schemes
Jean Piaget was what kind of psychologist? Developmental Psychologist
Jean Piaget was known for what kind of studies? Epistemological Studies with Children
What was Piaget's Epistemological Studies with children called? Genetic Epistemology
What theory was Jean Piaget well known for? The Theory of Cognitive Development
What are the two major parts of Piaget's theory of cognitive development "1. Ages and Stages 2. Theory of Development (Constructivist Theory of Knowing)"
Describe the Theory of Cognitive Development "1.A comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. 2. First developed by Jean Piaget. 3. It is primarily known as a developmental stage theory.
How does the theory of cognitive development deal with the nature of knowledge? It deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire- construct- and use it.
What importance did Piaget place on the theory of cognitive development? Piaget claims the idea that cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language is contingent on cognitive development."
Describe Jean Piaget's 4 stages of development (ages and stages). 1. Sensory-motor birth – 2 years 2. Pre-Operational 2 – 7 years 3. Concrete Operational 7 – 11 years 4. Formal Operational 11 years and up"
Describe Piaget's theory of development also known as the constructivist theory of knowing (the basis of constructivism). Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be ""given"" information which they immediately understand and use. Instead- humans must ""construct"" their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience.
What processes are used to change schemas? These schemas are changed- enlarged- and made more sophisticated through two complimentary processes
Describe Assimilation. The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment- which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
Describe Accommodation. The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together. You can't have one without the other.
Describe Adaptation. Adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation.
Describe Conservation The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Describe Decentration The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.
Describe Egocentrism The belief that you are the center of the universe and everything revolves around you. And the inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Early stage of psychological development.
Describe Operation The process of working something out in your head. Young children in the sensorimotor and preoperational stages have to act- and try things out in the real world (like count on fingers instead of in their head);
Describe Schema The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions- ideas- and/or actions- which go together.
Describe Piaget's Sensory-motor stage. Progression from reflexive to goal directed behavior.
Describe the steps in the Sensory-Motor Stage. 1. Differentiates self from objects 2. Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally (shakes rattle to make noise)3. Achieves object permanence; realizes things continue to exhist even when no longer present to the sense "
Describe Piaget's Pre-Operational Stage. 1.Learns to use language and to represent objects by images/words.2.Thinking is still egocentric
Describe Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage. 1.Can think logically about objects and events.2.Achieves Conservation of number (math-age6,mass age 7,weight age 9).3.Classifies Objects according to several features/can order them in a series along a single dimension.
Describe Piaget's Formal Operational Stage. 1. Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypothesis systematically. 2. Becomes Concerned with the hypothetical- the future- and ideological problems.
Name the sub stages of the sensorimotor stage 1. Simple Reflexes 2. First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions Phase 3. Secondary circular reactions phase 4. Coordination of secondary circular reaction stages 5. Tertiary circular reactions- novelty- and curiosity 6. Internalization of Schemes
Name the sub stages of the pre-operational stage 1. Symbolic Function 2. Intuitive Thought
Name the important processes of the concrete operational stage 1. Seriation 2. Transitivity 3. Classification 4. Decentering 5. Reversibility 6. Conservation 7. Elimination of Egocentrism
Jean Piaget was a______ Constructivist
Jean Piaget's theory suggested Development occurs when assimilation is not possible.
Piaget suggested learning occurs because of____ Motivation to maintain cognitive equilibrium.
Jane’s mother has two crackers- both of equal size. She breaks one into four pieces. Jane says she wants the one with the most and chooses the four pieces- even though the two amounts are equal. Jane's choice illustrates Piaget's concept of. Conservation (of number)
Jane has learned to feed herself with a spoon. When her mother gives her a fork- she picks it up and feeds herself. Jane has __________ the fork into her schema for utensils. Assimilated
The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the Formal Operational Stage
A schema is____ Category of knowledge that allows us to interpret and understand the world.
According to Piaget- children in the concrete operational stage have difficulty with Deductive logic
Piaget assumed that children are___________in constructing understanding in the world. Active
Piaget's theories are criticized by some due to 1. It was based on an unrepresentative sample of children 2. Not all people reach the formal operational stage consistently 3. His theory underestimates children's abilities
Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world during the _________ sub stage of the sensorimotor stage Early Representational thought.
Piaget believed that children in the preoperational stage have difficulty taking the perspective of another person. This is known as Egocentrism
Social Science disciplines evolved from? Social philosophy
Social Science studies how people? behave in the social world that is of their own making.
Social Science does not study? the physical world into which we are born.
What is really new about the social sciences? that they attempt to use the scientific method to formulate generalizations and theory about human behavior in society.
The social sciences use the scientific method as a tool for? theory building.
The scientific method implies that researchers? do their work with a set of attitudes that include doubt- objectivity- and ethical neutrality.
The scientific method involves a specific technique base on precise and systematic observation and recording of data? Which includes? Defining a Problem Plan for Data Collection Statement of Hypothesis Collection of Data Classification of Data Analysis of Data Verification-Replication of experiment
Scientific method must be performed? under controlled conditions by trained observers
What is a concept? Abstract ways of classifying things that are similar
What is a theory? sets of concepts arranged so as to explain or predict possible and probable relationships among phenomena.
What is research? data collection to test and bolster or refute theories.
A method of research consisting of a detailed- long-term investigation of a single social unit. case study
A generalized idea about people- objects- or processes that are related to one another concept
A survey of a broad spectrum of a population at a specific point in time cross-section
An attitude of the scientific method in the social sciences- requiring that scientists not pass moral judgments. ethical neutrality
A method of research in which the researcher controls and manipulates variables in one group to test the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable experiment
A tentative statement- in clearly defined terms- predicting a relationship between variables hypothesis
A survey that continues over a long period of time- engaging and contrasts and comparison. longitudinal
A principle of the scientific method- especially in the social sciences- requiring researchers to divest themselves of personal attitude- desires- beliefs- values- and tendencies when confronting their data objectivity
A method of research in which researchers try to take part in the lives of the members of the group under analysis- sometimes with-out revealing their purpose. participant observation
In the social sciences- a statistical concept referring to the totality of phenomena under investigation (e.g. all college students in a four year university) population
An aspect of scientific methodology that bolsters and complements theories. In the social sciences four fundamental formats are used The sample survey- the case study- the experiment- and participant observation
A method of research consisting of an attempt to determine the occurrence of a particular act or opinion in a particular sample of people sample survey
A set of concepts arranged so as to explain and/or predict possible and probable relationships theory
Factors whose relationships researchers try to uncover- characteristics that differ in each individual case variables
What four formats are fundamentally used in social science research? PECS participant observation, experiment, case study, sample survey
A teachers task is guiding and directing the child’s activity Vygotsky
Children Learn by solving Problems with the help of a teacher. Vygotsky
Mixed ability groupings are essential because the more advanced child can act as a tutor. Vygotsky
Students must construct knowledge and understand it in their own minds – interaction is critical. Vygotsky
School learning should occur in a meaningful context – hands on meaningful learning. Vygotsky
Relate out of school experience to school experience (ie study of ones home town). Vygotsky
Look at each child as an individual. Vygotsky
Children should play- experiment- and reason to learn. Piaget
Humans can't be given information they immediately understand. Piaget
Humans construct their own knowledge through experimentation. Piaget
Experience enables children to construct schemes Piaget
Schemes can be altered thru assimilation- accommodation- and equilibrium. Piaget
Teachers should base instructional delivery and assessments on schemes the students already know. Piaget
Children should have hands on experiments so they can see and touch their project. Piaget
Teachers should understand each developmental stage. Piaget
A preschool teacher can't have the same environment as a middle school teacher. Piaget
Teachers shouldn't talk to students- they should check in with them for understanding. Piaget
"He coined the phrase ""Identity Crisis"" Erikson
Did not have a BA but served as a professor of Harvard and Yale. Erikson
Was acquainted with Anna Freud- daughter of Sigmund Freud- that’s how he became interested in psychology. Erikson
Became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. Erikson
Went beyond Freud's 5 stages of development and went to 8 stages. Erikson
Developed the theory of personality Erikson
Learning always precedes development. Vygotsky
Private speech helps internalize knowledge. Vygotsky
Development always follows the child’s potential to learn. Vygotsky
Intellectual development results from an active dynamic interplay between a child and their environment. Piaget
Social Development is a product of cognitive maturation and experience. Piaget
Type of Theory – Development always precedes learning. Children must first meet a certain maturation level before learning can occur. Constructivism
Type of Theory – Learning and development cannot be separated but instead occur simultaneously. Behaviorism
Type of Theory – Learning is Development Behaviorism
Type of Theory – Learning and development are separate but interactive processes. One process always prepares the other process and vice versa. Gestaltism
what does Gestalt Mean Essence or form
Type of Theory – The human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts. Gestaltism
Type of Theory – The whole is greater that the sum of the parts. Gestaltism
Gestalt laws of grouping. 1. Law of Proximity 2. Law of Similarity 3. Law of closure 4. Law of symmetry 5. Law of common fate 6. Law of Continuity 7. Law of good gestalt 8. Law of Past Experience
Each stage of development is marked by conflict- for which successful resolution will result in favorable outcomes. Erikson
Known for the Psychosocial Development of Humans. Erikson
Type of Theory – To do with evolution (not all the views are from C. D. ) Darwinism
He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors with his proposed scientific theory of Natural Selection. Darwin
His unifying theory of the life sciences- explains the diversity of life. Darwin
Carl Marx and Max Webber were known as Founders of Social Science.
How is Vygotsky's cognitive development theory different than Piagets? Vygotsky did not use stages
What did Vygotsky think was an important concept about development. 1. Development always follows the child’s potential to learn. 2 Learning always precedes development.
How did Vygotsky view the importance of language. He felt that speech was critical for development and learning.
How did Vygotsky view the importance of socialization? He felt that knowledge was transmitted through social interaction.
What did Vygotsky use in his cognitive development theory. the Zone of Proximal Learning or ZPD and Scaffolding.
Describe the ZPD. the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. (ZPD=learner can do with guidance).
Describe Scaffolding. Scaffolding is changing the level of support to suit the cognitive potential of the child. During a teaching session a skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s potential level of performance.
Vygotsky's theory suggests that learning_______ development. Precedes
The study of human group behavior is the definition of sociology
Max Weber believed that class is closely related to life chances
The notion that social institutions reinforce and legitimize class divisions is derived from Karl Marx
Political science has taken a turn toward the social sciences in its studies of the social impact of government on groups and individuals
The most fundamental factor(s) in stratification is (are) education and income
The discipline that studies such disparate subjects as the environment- religion- politics- criminality- organization- and so on- is sociology
The social science that deals with human use of the natural environment is geography
The structural-functionalist explanation of social stratification asserts that there is a limited number of skilled- talented people; thus- they should be rewarded
Which are the dimensions of stratification? Class- status- and power
Social Darwinists believed that only the strongest persons should control the resources of a society
Marx's view of social class is that private ownership of the means of production perpetuates class divisions
During the Enlightenment of the 18th century a number of scholars believed human social life could be studied scientifically
Scientific theories are open to challenge
An anthropologist living with a group of people and engaging in some of their rituals is using the following research method participant observation
Once a social scientist has formulated the hypothesis- what is the next step of the scientific method? Developing a research design
A theory is a set of concepts and generalizations
The social sciences have problems conducting laboratory experiments- as do the natural sciences.
Scientific conclusions are relative to time and place of study and subject to revision
An intensive study of an individual or a small group is made by using the following research method case study
History is often NOT considered a social science because its primary concern is to record events of the past
Experiments are based on controlling a variable and observing the results
Statistics that allow researchers to generalize to a population from a sample are called inferential
The research method in which the researcher controls one variable and observes and records the results is called experiment
Variables that exercise influence on other variables are called independent variables
If a broad spectrum of the population is surveyed at a given time- the study is called cross-sectional
The hypothesis is a statement of a tentative statement of a topic that is subject to testing
Correlation differs from causation in that correlation only indicates a possible causal relation
Repeating a research project is called replication
The scientific method contains all but one of the following techniques selecting data to prove a point
A sample is a subset of a population
Cooley's looking glass self refers to a person's perception as to what others think of him/her
Recent research supports the notion that mother-infant bonding has a biological basis
Successful socialization for humans requires contact with other humans
Socialization involves the use of which process to turn a horde of barbarians into productive human beings? symbolic and physical interaction
The primary agent of socialization is the family
The emergence of the self as a result of interaction with others is a common thread in ALL BUT ONE of the following theories behaviorism
Which is NOT an aim of the process of socialization? To teach infants to sit- stand- walk- and run in that order
When one knows the roles that one is expected to play and is willing and able to do so- one is successfully socialized
Studies of siblings who shared parents- social class- and everyday experiences have shown that they view the same experiences differently
Humans exhibit biological drives
Specialized socialization occurs most frequently in occupational groups or organizations
Personality must be considered as interplay between environment and learned behavior
Darwin's theory lacked an explanation of how traits were transmitted to offspring
Natural selection refers to having a trait or traits useful in a change of environment
Absence of body contact and stimulation in infants inhibits development of higher learning functions
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development claims universal validity
Freudian psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the unconscious level of personality
A major criticism of Freud's theory is his overemphasis on early childhood
Gestalt psychology looks at behavior as a whole
In Erikson's system- each of the stages present the individual with crises of self-definition
According Piaget's developmental theory a child of eight can master addition
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are associated with the following theories of personality stressing self-concept and self-actualization
Maturation is a term used by developmental psychologists to refer to physical (biological) development
Kohlberg's three stages of moral development are pre-conventional- conventional- and post-conventional
What is one difference between Freud's developmental stages and Erikson's? Freud stopped at adolescence
Which of the following refers to Piaget's developmental theory? Personality development proceeds in stages related to sensory-motor maturation
Personality may be seen as a circular system in that personality affects roles and vice-versa

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