Term Definition
Weed A plant growing where it is not wanted.
Crop A plant that is raised for the production of food and/or fiber for people or animals.
Botany The study of plants
Paleozoic Era More than 500 million years ago
Ordovician Period 505-438 million years ago
Angiosperms The flowering plants
Cretaceous Period About 355 million years ago
Vascular Structural support, water conduction
Phloem Food conduction. Roots, stems, and leaves
Nonvascular Mosses, no more than 1 or 2 inches tall. No special tissues like xylem and phloem.
Cell Wall Protects, structurally supports cells
Chloroplast Specializes in photosynthesis
Central Vacuole Increases cell surface area, stores metabolic wastes
Nucleus Keeps DNA and its transcription into RNA away from potentially damaging reactions in cytoplasm
Nuclear Envelope PART OF NUCLEUS- double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
Nucleolus PART OR NUCLEUS- a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus, where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled
DNA in Nucleoplasm PART OF NUCLEUS- Chromatin: holds hereditary material
Ribosomes Attached to rough ER and free in cytoplasm sites of protein synthesis
Rough ER Modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesized lipids
Smooth ER Diverse roles; e.g. makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins
Golgi Apparatus Modifies, sorts and ships proteins and lipids for exports or for insertion into cell membranes
Lysosome- Like Vesicle Digests, recycles materials
Plasma Membrane Selectively controls the kinds and amounts of substances moving into and out of the cell; helps maintain cytoplasmic volume and composition
Plasmodesmata Communicates junction between adjoining cells
Mitochondrion Energy power-house produces many ATP or aerobic respiration
Cytoskeleton Structurally supports, impacts shape and moves cell and its componants
Microtubules PART OF CYTOSKELETON- Hollow tubes of protein that support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
Micofilaments PART OF CYTOSKELETON- Protein fibers that help the cell contract and move
Intermediate Filaments PART OF CYTOSKELETON- Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
Tonoplast Holds vacuole together
Peroxisome Where hydrogen peroxide and other harmful molecules are broken down by enzymes
Alternate Leaf arrangement, one leaf at each node of the stem
Annual A plant whose life duration is a year or less.
Awn A bristle-like tip: most frequently used with respect to bristle or hair like projections from glumes, lemmas, or paleas of grass spikelets.
Berry A fleshy, several-seeded fruit.
Biennial A plant whose life is two years.
Bulb An underground perennial, storage organ consisting of a stem axis and numerous, overlapping leaf scales.
Capillary Thread-like. A small tube that helps draw water.
Compound (leaf) A leaf whose blade is divided into two or more distinct leaflets.
Dissected (leaf) A leaf whose blade is cut into numerous, narrow lobes.
Entire The margin of a leaf which is untoothed.
Fibrous Roots A root system, as in grasses, compound of numerous, separate roots rather than one main root.
Infloresence A cluster of flowers, or the flower-bearing portion or portions of a plant.
Internode Portion of a stem between nodes.
Irregular A flower with petals which differ in size. Example: Flowers of the legume family.
Leaflet A secondary division of a compound leaf.
Margin Edge of a leaf.
Node The part of the stem from which leaves and branches arise.
Opposite (leaves) The leaves paired at each node.
Palmately Compound A compound leaf in which the leaflets all arise from the same point

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