Term Definition
What are 4 types of unlearned environment-behavior relations 1. reflexes
2. kinesis
3. taxis
4. fixed action patterns
reflex simple relation between an antecedent stimulus and a reflex response
What type of contingency is a reflex An S-R relationship
elicit strongly, consistently, and reliably evoke
Elicit should be used for respondent functional relations
Elicit should not be used for operant functional relations
unconditioned reflex simple relation between a specific stimulus and a specific innate, involuntary response
reflex responses are stereotypic highly invariant in form
innate means of phylogenic provenance
reflexes are mediated by autonomic nervous system
central cortex is not involved
all members of the species share the same set of reflexes
reflexes are highly invariant in time of appearance during development
involuntary means it bypasses the central cortex
patellar reflex knee-jerk
eye blink reflex if cornea is touched, a person blinks
lachrimal reflex tears are secreted when eyes are exposed to irritants
pupillary reflex light changes in intensity, pupils change in size
respiratory reflex person inhales and exhales as the pressure of air in lungs change
rooting reflex baby's face is touched, head moves toward person
peristalsis when a person swallows, involuntary contractions pass along esophagus
reverse peristalsis vomiting occurs after eating indigestible food
Activation or syndrome reflex onset of a stimulus that is either very intense, painful, or very unusual results in a high state of physiological arousal
unconditioned stimulus stimulus which elicits an unconditioned response without prior learning; due to innate capacity; part of a reflex
unconditioned stimulus is only used for respondent behavior
unconditioned stimulus is never used for operant behavior
unconditioned response response which is elicited by unconditioned stimulus without prior learning; due to phylogenic provenance
unconditioned responses is the response part of unconditioned reflex
unconditioned response must be elicited by a specific unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
habituation temporary reduction in a reflex response due to repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus (a US or CS)
habituation presentations must occur within a relatively short period of time
habituation term is only used when referring to reflexes
adaptation reduction in the frequency or magnitude of a response or a set of responses as a result of prolonged exposure to a stimulus or environmental context
unconditioned stimulus is the stimulus in an unconditioned reflex
the unconditioned stimulus must elicit an unconditioned response (UR) without prior learning
the unconditioned stimuli environmental change must precede the unconditioned response
habituation is transitory
adaptation is not transitory but relatively permanent
adaptation can be used for both reflexes and/or operant behavior
potentiation temporary increase in some dimension or intensity of a reflex response due to a repeated presentations of an eliciting stimulus; most likely produced by an aversive antecedent stimulus
opposite of habituation potentiation
sensitization tendency of a stimulus to elicit a reflex response following the elicitation of that response by a different stimulus
catanias definition of sensitization 2013 eliciting effects of one stimulus are enhanced as a result of presentations of some other stimulus; one stimulus amplifies the eliciting effect of another stimulus
catanias definition of sensitization 2007 lowering of a threshold as when prior delivery of an aversive stimulus lowers intensity at which a noise elicits a startle response
difference between potentiation and sensitization potentiation has only one stimulus that repeats; sensitization has two different stimuli
respondent conditioning is also known as classical conditioning and Pavlovian conditioning
conditioned reflex simple relation between a specific conditioned stimulus and a conditioned involuntary response
conditioned reflexes are learned through contingent pairing of neutral stimuli with unconditioned stimuli or other conditioned stimuli
conditioned response almost always highly similar if not identical to the unconditioned response
all conditioned reflexes are based on unconditioned reflexes
conditioned reflex is also known as conditioned responses

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