Term Definition
Mineral Naturally occurring inorganic solid
Rock A solid aggregate or mass mineral
Element Basic building blocks of minerals
Atoms Smallest particle of matter
Nucleus Consists of protons and neutrons
Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus
Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combing two or more elements
Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose valence electrons to form ions
Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality
Isotope Is an atom that exhibits variations in its mass number
Radioactive decay Some istopes have unstable nuclei that emit particals and
Polymorphs Two or more minerals with the same chemical
Composition but different crystalline structures
Luster Appearance of minerals reflected light
Streak Color of a minerals in its powder form
Hardness Resistance of a mineral to abrasions or mineral
Cleavage Tendency to break along planes of weak. Bonding

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