Flash Cards

Chapter 4 Cell Reproduction

Question Answer
mitosis cell production in which the nucleus divides to from two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase)
chromosome structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material
asexual reproduction a type of reproduction – fission, budding, and regeneration – in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical tot he parent organism
sexual reproduction a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity
sperm haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs; in humans, male reproductive cells produced in the testes
egg haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs
fertilization in sexual reproduction, the joining of the sperm and egg
zygote new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism
diploid cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
haploid cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells
meiosis reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of two twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
gene section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
RNA ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
mutation any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism

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