Term Definition Goals of Science 1. Prediction and Control
2. Development of technology to benefit humanity Determinism All behavior is lawful Empiricism Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of behavior Two elements of empiricism 1. Experimentation
2. Replication Parsimony Simple explanations should be ruled out before complex ones Philosophical Doubt Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact; be skeptical Pragmatism Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application Pragmatic Truth Criterion 1. evaluates science in terms of its products that benefit humanity
2. goal is to predict and control behavior
3. behavior analysis has produced a powerful technology for behavior change that has made a difference in thousands of people's lives Philosophical Assumptions 1.Determinism
4.Philosophical Doubt
5.Pragmatism Selection Process in which repeated cycles occur of:
1. variation
2. interaction with e'ment
3. differential replication as a function of interaction Skinner and selectionism 1. natural selection
2. operant selection
3. cultural selection natural selection survival of the fittest Operant selection selected responses are repeated and reproduced cultural selection special kind of operant selection; mediated by verbal behavior involving cultural practices Selectionism Behavior is the joint product of:
1. contingencies of survival responsible for natural selection on the species
2. contingencies of reinforcement responsible for the repertoires acquired by individual organism Temporal contiguity nearness of events in time
** very important factor in learning Types of temporal contiguity S1-S2 (Pairing)
R-S Contingency Likelihood that one event is a result of another event
If X (AND ONLY X) then Y Contiguity Adjacency between events regardless of causality Types of Contingencies 1. S-S (Pairing)
2. R-S
3. S-R-S (3-term contingency) Basic operations of behavior analysis 1. direct observation of behavior and e'ment events
2. repeated measures of behavior
3. Graph data
4. manipulation
5. systematic evaluation
6. analysis and interpretation Direct observation The "Show me" methods: using senses to observe behavior in context Direct observation – measurement one of the following:
1. number
2. Time-based aspects of the behavior (latency, duration, and/or IRT)
3. time-sampling Repeated Measures Data collected multiple times before intervention, and after each manipulation, and during any other phase of the study Types of manipulations 1. present an antecedent stimulus
2. withdraw an antecedent stimulus
3. pair 2 or more stimuli
4. provide a consequence (onset/offset)
5. signal a consequence
6. establish/abolish effectiveness of consequence Systematic evaluation Control for extraneous confounding variables in single-case designs analysis and interpretations Look for functional relations between behavior and e'mental events Presentation of stimulus 1. salt on tongue -> salivation
2. sudden loud noise -> startle response
3. rain begins -> turn on windshield wipers Withdrawal of a stimulus 1. light turns off -> pupils dilate
2. rain stops -> turn off wipers

Pairing Contingently pairing 2 or more stimuli concurrently

may be same time, or 1 can precede the other consequential operations (+) 1. press lever -> food pellet comes out
2. ask for water -> get water
3. tough hot stove -> get burned consequential operations (-) 1. flip switch -> light turns off
2. walk indoors -> rain stops hitting you
3. kick teacher -> get out of class
4. hit brother -> video games turned off Signaling a consequence s1-r1 – consequence
s2-r1 – no consequence
dad – ask for video game – gets video game
mom – ask for video game – doesn't get video game establishing operations 1. salt on tongue increases the effectiveness of getting water as a consequence
2. decreasing the temperature to 50 degrees Fahrenheit makes getting a blanket more effective consequence
3. a locked door makes finding a key a more effective consequence abolishing operations 1. drinking 32oz of water decreases effectiveness of getting water as a consequence
2. raising the temperature to 80 degrees Farenheit makes getting a blanket a less effective consequence learning relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience magnification of a stimulus rain gets harder -> turn up wipers attenuation of a stimulus rain lessens -> turn down wipers

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