Flash Cards

Chapter 3 and 4 Vocabulary

Term Definition
Mineralogists Scientists who study the distribution of minerals, mineral properties, and their uses
Luster the way a mineral reflects or absorbs light at its
Streak the color of a mineral in powdered form
Hardness the resistance of a mineral to being scratched
Fracture If a mineral breaks to form uneven surfaces, it has
Cleavage If a mineral breaks with smooth, flat surfaces, it has
Density The mass of an object divided by its volume is the ____________________ of a mineral
Mineral a naturally occurring, inorganic solid, with a
definite chemical composition.
Silicate a mineral
that contains silicon and oxygen in its crystal structure, although it can also
contain other elements.
Crystallization Dissolved minerals in water can undergo , or solidify in an orderly arrangement of atoms, when the water evaporates.
magma molten rock below Earth’s surface
lava magma that erupts onto Earth’s surface
ore Rocks that contain high enough concentrations of a desired substance, such as a metal, so that it can be mined for profit
gemstone a rare and attractive mineral that can be worn as jewelry
deposit sediment or rock added to a
grain fragment that makes up a rock
lava molten rock that erupts on
Earth’s surface
magma molten or liquid rock
mineral naturally occurring,
inorganic solid with a definite
chemical composition and an
orderly arrangement of atoms
rock natural, solid mixture of minerals
or particles
rock cycle series of processes that
change one type of rock into another
type of rock
sediment rock material that is
broken down into smaller pieces
or dissolved in water as rocks
texture grain size and the way
grains fit together in a rock
extrusive rock igneous rock that
cools and crystallizes on Earth’s
intrusive rock igneous rock that
forms as magma cools underground
volcanic glass rock that forms
when lava cools too quickly to
form crystals
biochemical rock sedimentary rock
that was formed by organisms or
contains the remains of organisms
cementation crystallization of
minerals from water into the
spaces between sediment grains
chemical rock made of minerals
that crystallize directly from water
clast broken piece or fragment of
clastic rocks sedimentary rock made
of clasts of minerals or rock
compaction process that squeezes
out fluids and decreases the space
between the grains in a sediment
foliated rock contains parallel
layers of flat and elongated
metamorphism process that affects
structure or composition of rocks
in the solid state; occurs due to
changes in heat, pressure, or the
addition of chemical fluids
nonfoliated rock has mineral grains
with a random interlocking texture
plastic deformation permanent
change in rock shape caused by
bending and folding

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