Term Definition
Antibiotic A drug used to treat infection caused by bacteria or other microorganisms
Antibodies Proteins produced by the body that attack infectious agents and neutralize them
Applied Ethology The study of domestic animal behavior
Aversive Event A negative experience that may be painful, frightening, or nauseating. May involve senses, such as foul taste or odor or a sound like that made from by a can full of rocks tossed at a misbehaving puppy.
Classical Sign Observable difference in an animal's normal function or state of health that indicates the presence of a bodily disorder or a disease. (ex. fever, weight loss, etc.)
Cortisol A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It is elevated during stress and has been used as a gauge for the degree of stress an animal is under.
Cribbing An undesirable behavior in horses in which they bite and/or hold onto objects such as posts,fences,etc. Thought to be brought on by boredom because of stabling or confinement in a small area.
Disease State of being other than that of complete health. Disturbance of normal function of the body or its parts.
Domoninance An animals place in the social rankings (pecking order)
Ethogram A catalog or inventory of all of the behaviors an animal exhibits in its natural environment. Originally was a study of wild animals.
Ethology The study of animals in their natural surroundings. focus on instinctive or innate behavior. also referred as applied ethology.
Etiology The factor that causes a disease or the study of the factors that cause disease.
Flight zone The distance which an animal is caused to flee from an intruder.
Grading up The process of improving animals for some productive function by consecutive matings with animals considered to be genetically superior.
Habituation A type of operant conditioning. Animal's ability to eventually ignore something that occurs often.
Imprint Learning Learning that has restrictive conditions and times when it can occur
Infectious Disease Diseases caused by living organisms, which invade and multiply in or on the body and result in damage to the body.
Lesion Abnormal changes in body organs because of injury or disease.
Necropsy Examination of a body after death
Novelty Anything new or sudden in an animal's environment
Parasite An organism that lives at the expense of a host organism. Must live or on the host. Form of symbiosis.
Passive Immunity Immunity conferred to an animal through preformed antibodies that it receives from an outside source. Antibodies are harvested from the mother's bloodstream by the mammary gland to put into colostrum.
Pathogen Any living disease-producing agent
Pica A craving for and willingness to eat unnatural feedstuffs. Often caused by nutritional deficiencies.
Stereotypic Behavior Nonfunctional, repetitive, and intentional behavior. (ex in horses. Stall walking, weaving, and pawing)
Stress Physical, emotional, or chemical factor causing body or mental strain or tension.
Vector 1)Animal, usually and arthropod, that transfers an infectious agent from one host to another. 2) A DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell, replicates inside a bacterial (or yeast) cell and produces many copies of itself
Withdrawal Time The length of time an antibiotic must not be administered or fed to an animal before the animal can be legally slaughtered.
Zoonotic The ability to be passed from animals to humans under natural conditions.
Anthelmintic A drug or chemical agent used to kill or remove internal parasites
Antigen A foreign substance, that when introduced into tissue or blood, causes the formation of Antibodies
Biologicals Medicinal products used primarily to prevent disease. Includes serums, vaccines, antigens, antitoxins, etc.

Chemotherapeutics Chemical agents used to treat or prevent disease
Drench To give fluid by mouth
Environment The sum total of all external conditions that affect the well-being and
performance of an animal
Intelligence The ability to learn to adjust successfully to conditions or situations
Morbidity Measurement of illness (morbidity rate is the number of animals in a group that become sick over a specified period of time)
Scours Diarrhea; a profuse watery discharge from the intestines
Subcutaneous under the skin
Thermo-neutral zone Range in temperature where rate and efficiency of gain is maximized;also known as the comfort zone
Vaccine Suspension of attenuated or killed microbes or toxins administered to induce active immunity
Virus Disease-causing ultramicroscopic bundle of genetic material capable of multiplying only in living cells
Boxed Beef Cuts of beef shipped in boxes from packer to retailer. These primal and sub-primal cuts are intermediate cuts between carcass and retail cuts.
Bullock A young bull typically less than 20 months of age
Margin The difference in cost per hundredweight of the feeder animal and the selling price per hundredweight of the slaughter animal.

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