Flash Cards

7th grade Ch. 4

Term Definition
diffusion the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area where their concentration is low
osmosis the diffusion of water across a cell membrane
passive transport the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane
against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell
exocytosis the process used to remove large particles from a cell; during exocytosis, a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell membrane
photosynthesis the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar
cellular respiration the process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water
fermentation the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis
chromosome a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
binary fission the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria
homologous chromosomes chromosomes with matching information
chromatids identical chromosome copies
centromere the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated
mitosis nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes
cytokinesis the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis

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