Flash Cards

Changing Surface

Term Definition
Weathering The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface.
Mechanical Weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
Chemical Weathering The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.
Abrasion The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
Ice Wedging Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
Erosion The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil.
Deposition Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
Sediment Earth materials deposited by erosion.
Sedimentary Rock The type of rock that is made of hardened sediment.
Igneous Rock One of the three main rock types formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
Metamorphic Rock Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.
Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a model that describes the formation, breakdown, and reformation of a rock as a result of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic processes.
Strata Layers of rock.
Stratification The process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
Foliated Aligned grains of flat minerals.
Non-Foliated Mineral grains not arranged in plains or bands.
Mafic Rocks that are dark in color.
Felsic Rocks that are light in color.
Course Grained Describes the long amount of time it takes for rocks to cool down allowing crystals to grow.
Fine Grained Describes the short amount of time it takes for rocks to cool down allowing little to no crystals to grow.
Intrusive Magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth's surface.
Extrusive Forms when magma erupts onto the Earth's surface and cools quickly.

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