Flash Cards

Charpter 1 Classifying and Exploring Life

Term Definition
organisms things that have all the characteristics of life
6 characteristic to all living things 1. organization
2. growth and development
3. reproduction
4. responds to stimuli
5. homeostasis
6. energy
cell the smallest unit of life
unicellular living things that are made of only one cell
(gets bigger by cell getting bigger)
multicellular living things that are made of two or more cells
(gets bigger by making more cells)
sexual reproduction requires 2 parents…offspring is a mix of parents genetics
asexual reproduction requires 1 parent…offspring is a clone of parent
response reaction to a stimulus
stimulus anything that causes a change in an organism
internal stimuli stimuli that organisms react to from inside their body ex: hunger, thirst, body temperature, stress
external stimuli stimuli that organisms react to from outside their body or surrounding environment ex: light, heat, noise, danger
homeostasis an organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change
producer make their own energy
consumer eat to get energy
organization levels throughout the organism cells -> tissue -> organ -> organ systems ->
organism
Characteristic #1 – organization living things have specialized structures with specialized functions
Characteristic #2 – growth and development living things grow by increasing cell size and/or increasing cell number
Characteristic #3 – reproduction living things make more living things through the process of reproduction
Characteristic #4 – respond to stimuli living things adjust and respond to changes in their internamland external environments
Characteristic #5 – homeostasis living things maintain stable internal conditions
Characteristic #6 – use of energy living things use energy for all the processes they perform
binomial nomenclature gives each organism a two-word scientific name
species is a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to produce fertile offspring
genus is a group of similar species
dichotomous key is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs that leads the user to the identification of an unknown organism
cladogram is a branched diagram that shows the relationships among organisms, including common ancestors
light microscope use light and lenses to enlarge an image of an object
compound microscope a light microscope that uses more than one lens to magnify an object (eyepiece and objective lens)
electron microscope use a magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons through an object or onto an object's surface
transmission electron microscope (TEM) used to study extremely small items; thin slice of a dead organism
scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to study an objects surface…produces a 3-dimensional image
Anton van Leeuwenhoek In 1600's made one of the first microscopes
Robert Hooke in 1700's he observed and named cells using a microscope
total magnification eye lens x objective lens
ex: low power = 40x
ex: middle power = 100x
ex: high power = 400x




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