Question Answer
What is the definition of an element? An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. An atom is the smallest particle of an element maintaining the chemical identity of that element.
Which elements make up the solid portion of Earth? The solid parts of Earth are made of mostly oxygen and silicon
Which elements are common to living organisms? Living matter is mainly made of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus.
Which element is the most common on Earth? oxygen
Which elements make up the oceans? The oceans are mainly made of oxygen and hydrogen, which are the elements in water.
Which elements are found in the atmosphere? The atmosphere is mainly made of nitrogen and oxygen.
What is the difference between an element and a compound? A substance that contains two or more different elements is a compound.
Pure Substance Matter that is made up of the same particles
Chemical Symbol The symbol that represents each element on the periodic table
Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of the elements according to their
atomic numbers and periodic trends of physical and
chemical properties
Matter Anything that has volume and mass
Atomic Number The number of protons (positive charges) in an
atomic nucleus
periodic Groups The columns on a periodic table that arrange the
elements by select characteristics
Periodic Periods The rows in a periodic table that classify the
elements by select characteristics
Atom The smallest unit of an element that has all of the
properties of that element
Physical Property Those characteristics that can be observed without
changing the identity of the substance such as
size, shape, luster, conductivity, malleability, and
magnetic attraction
Chemical Reaction The process by which one or more substances
change to produce one or more different
Chemical Formula A shorthand notation that uses chemical symbols
and numbers as subscripts to represent the type of
atoms and number of atoms that are present in the
smallest unit of the substance
What is a chemical change? A chemical change occurs when elements bond together or when bonds of compounds are broken and form a new substance.
What forms from a chemical change? A new substance forms from a chemical change. It may have different properties than those of the original substance.
What are some signs of a chemical change? We often observe signs of a chemical change by the gas production, precipitate formation, absorption or energy release in the form of heat or light, a color change or odor formation.
Property The characteristics or qualities of a substance:
physical and chemical
Physical Change A change without forming a new substance such
as a different size or state of matter
Phase of Matter A phase is another name for a physical state of
matter such as solid, liquid, or gas
Production of Heat or Light Evidence of a chemical reaction
Formation of a Precipitate Evidence of a chemical reaction
Production of Gas Evidence of a chemical reaction
Rust Red oxides, formed by the reaction
of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air
Corrode The result of a chemical reaction between a metal
and its surroundings during which the metal is
Combust The process of burning. A chemical change,
especially oxidation, accompanied by the
production of heat and light.
Density The amount of matter in a given space or volume;
a relationship between mass and volume
What are the three main element groups? There are three main groups of elements: metals, non-metals and metalloids.
What are the predominate physical properties of element groups classified as metals? Most elements are metals, and most metals are generally shiny, malleable and conduct heat and electricity easily.
What are the predominate physical properties of element groups classified as non-metals? Non-metals are generally not shiny, not malleable and do not conduct heat or electricity easily.
What are the predominate physical properties of element groups classified as metalloids? The metalloids exhibit intermediate properties of both metals and non-metals.
Metal An element that is typically
a hard, shiny solid,
is malleable, and is a
good conductor of
heat and electricity

An element that is usually a gas
or brittle solid at room
temperature, is not malleable or
ductile, is a poor conductor of
heat and electricity, and is
typically not shiny
Metalloid An element that shares
some properties of
metals and some of
Chemical Property Those characteristics that can be observed when a
chemical reaction changes the identity of the
substance, such as potential to rust,
corrode, or combust
Luster A property that describes having a shiny appearance
or reflecting light

A property that describes if heat or electrical charges
pass through the material easily
Malleability A property that describes the ability of the
material to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets
Magnetism A property that describes if the material is magnetic
Ductility A property that describes if the material has the
ability to be pulled into thin wire
without breaking
Brittle Likely to break, snap, or crack when subjected to

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