Term Definition
Feeds What are analyzed for nutrient composition and nutrient composition values for common feeds?
energy, protein, and mineral sat_flash_1 What do most feed tables report values of?
Total digestible nutrients (TND) what does determining mount of crude protein, crude fiber, carbohydrates, and fat derive?
Gross energy What is determined from burning a feed sample to release and quantify the energy sat_flash_1?
Fecal energy energy not taken into the body
Heat Increment heat lost from the meal
Crude Protein (CP) sat_flash_1 estimate of total protein in feed
53%C,7%H,23%O,16%N,and <1% S or P What does the average protein contain?
quality and quantity of amino acids that make up the protein What is the true indicator of a nutritionally adequate diet?
It allows conversion of its nutrient sat_flash_1 from as-fed basis to dry-matter basis and vice versa which helps balance diets for different nutrients Why is knowing the amount of moisture in a feed important?
Roughages low in TDN and high in fiber (>18% CF)
Concentrates high in TDN and low in fiber (</=18% CF)
Roughages What consists primarily of forages (such as hays and silages) and fibrous portions of plants whose seeds are concentrates (such as corn cobs, oat hulls)?
Legumes What are higher in protein and calcium than grasses?
Concentrates What consists primarily of seeds of plants and animal products?
Grains high in TDN, low in protein, most of them are palatable;include corn, oats,wheat,and rice
Grain by-products tend to be higher in protein than whole grains
Fats and Oils also known as lipids; used most often in diets for fast growing or high performance animals;includes animal fats and plant oils
Plant proteins important ones are soybean meal, cottonseed meal and flaxseed meal; oil is extracted from these seeds for human use
Animal proteins important ones are meat and bone meal, dried milk products, fish meal;high in protein, medium in TDN, and low in fiber
Mineral Supplements Ca source only – ground limestone, oyster shells;Ca and P sources, bone meal; salt-supplying NaCl; trace minerals-trace mineral premix formulated for each specific species of animals
Vitamin supplements generally available as vitamin premixes or incorporated into complete supplements that include minerals as well
Additives includes antibiotics or other medications(fight diseases),feed intake regulators, flavoring agents, probiotics, prebiotics, growth modifiers, functional foods etc.; usually have no nutrient value but can influence nutrient utilizaiton and growth rate
Abomasum true glandular stomach in the ruminant
Ad libitum having fed available at all times
Ash incombustible residue remaining after complete combustion at 500-600 degrees C of a sample, such as feed, animal tissue, or excreta, to remove the organic matter; considered to be mineral matter of feed
Bolus a rounded mass that is ready to swallow; on the ruminant, a bolus may stay intact and be regurgitated to be remasticated during rumination
Carbohydrates chemically defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that can be hydrolyzed to them
Carnivore animals that eat meat
Cellulose carbohydrate composed of thousands of glucose molecules that forms the support structure of plants
Chyme mixture of food, saliva, and gastric secretions as it is ready to leave the stomach and move into the duodenum
Coprophagy eating feces
Creep area where young nursing animals can have access to starter feeds; creep feeds are generally high-quality feds made available to young animals
Crude Fiber in proximate analysis, the insoluble carbohydrates remaining in a feed after boiling in acid and alkali
Crude protein estimate of protein sat_flash_1 obtained by multiplying the nitrogen sat_flash_1 of a substance by a factor, usually 6.25; both true protein and nonprotein nitrogen is included in the calculation
Deglutition act of swallowing; passing material from mouth through the esophagus to the stomach or first fermentation compartment
Diet all of the feeds consumed by an animal (including water)
Digestibility measure of the degree to which a feedstuff can be chemically simplified and absorbed by the digestive system of the body
Digestion physical, chemical, and enzymatic means the body uses to render a feedstuff ready for absorption
Dry Matter everything in a feed other than water
Enzymes proteins capable of catalyzing reactions associated with a specific substrate
Eructation belching; removing gas from rumen via esophagus
Ether extract portion of a sample that is removed by extraction with a fat solvent such as ethyl ether
Feed efficiency product (grain, milk, eggs, and so on) per unit of feed
Forage fiber-containing feeds like grass or hay; can be grazed or harvested for feeding; contain at least 18% fiber but have high digestible energy
Growth process of adding tissues similar to those already present in the body to increase the size of an organism toward the goal of maturity when growth stops
Herbivore animals that eat diet of only plant material
Lignin polymers of phenolic acids found in plants as part of the structural components of the plant
Maintenance nutritional needs of the animal exclusive of those required for a productive function such as growth, work, milk production, and so on
Mastication process of chewing
Minerals in nutrition, specific set of inorganic elements established as necessary for life in one or more animal species
Monogastric having only one stomach
Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) measure of readily available carbohydrates calculated by subtracting all measured proximate components from 100
Nutrient chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body
Omnivore animals that eat both plant and animal based foods
Peristalsis progressive, squeezing movements produced by contraction of muscle fibers in the wall of the digestive tract
Protein quality measure of the presence and digestibility of the essential amino acids in a feedstuff
Ration specific feed allotment given to an animal in a 24-hour period
Roughage a bulky feedstuff with low weight per unit volume; contains at least 18% fiber but can range up to 50%; less digestible than forages
Ruminant hooved animals that have a rumen and chew their cud
Rumination process in ruminants where a cud or bolus of rumen sat_flash_1s is regurgitated, remasticatedm and reswallowed for further digestion
Salivation elaboration of the mixed secretion (saliva) produced primarily in three bilateral pairs of glands in the mouth known as salivary glands
Symbiosis relationship in which two dissimilar organisms live together or in close association
Vitamin term that is used to group together a dissimilar set of organic substances required in very small quantities by the body
Work physical exertion as a production function
Adipose fat cells or fat tissue
As Fed refers to feeding feeds that contain their normal amount of moisture
By-product product of considerably less value than the main product
Essential nutrient nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient quantities to meet requirements an must be supplied in the diet
Non-nutritive Feed Additive ingredient added to a diet to perform a specific role other than supplying nutrients; Ex: flavoring, antibiotics
Fermentation anaerobic metabolic process that converts sugars to acids, gases, and/or alcohol using yeast or bacteria
Regurgitation process by which partially digested feed is cast up to the mouth as a normal part of digestion
Silage forage or other plant material such as corn fodder that is preserved by fermentation; similar to pickled food for humans
Volatile Fatty Acids (VTAs) group of short-chain fatty acids produced by microbes in the rumen; examples include acetic, proprionic, and butyric acids

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