Flash Cards

The Endocrine System

Term Definition
Gland a cell, tissue or organ that manufactures a substance and secretes it to be used elsewhere in the body
Exocrine Glands (exo=out, crine=secrete) those glands with tubes which carry their secretions from the gland to another organ or to the exterior of the body. example: tears, saliva, sweat, etc.
Endocrine glands (endo=within) ductless glands which produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones "chemical messengers" a chemical substance secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands which has a specific effect on the body functions.
Steriods complex substances which are the basic of many hormones
Chemical Messengers Hormones; act on other cells throughout the body
Pituitary Gland embedded in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone; secretes the most hormones in the body; "master gland" 1/2 inch in size, looks like a walnut (oval shape)
Pineal gland cone shaped behind the midbrain and 3rd ventricle
Thymus gland in the mediastinum, above the heart
Thyroid gland throat, around the trachea; connected by a band called the isthmus
Parathyroid gland embedded in the posterior aspect of thyroid glands
Pancreas posterior to stomach, epigastric region
Adrenal glands situated on top of each kidney
Ovaries bilateral inguinal region
Testes scrotal sac
Medulla the inner portion of the adrenal glands activated by the sympathetic division of the ANS
Cortex Covering; The outer portion of the adrenal glands
"fight or flight" initial sympathetic nervous system response
Epinephrine the main hormone in the initial stress response
Cortisol the second hormone to help our body survive stress; also known as an anti-inflammatory
Cachexia general ill-health and malnutrition
Exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
Gynecomastia breast development in the make
Hirsutism abnormal hairiness in females
Malaise general sense of being ill
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Diabetes Type 2 Diet and exercise is the first line of treatment
Diabetes Type 1 Insulin is the first line of treatment
Diabetes Diagnosis is determined by a using a Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
Hypoglycemia Blood sugar less than 70
Cushings disease is a hypersecretion of Glucocorticoids (Cortisol) found in the adrenal cortex
Grave's disease is a hypersecretion of the Thyroid gland
Addison's disease is a hyposecretion of Glucocorticoids (Cortisol) found in the adrenal cortex
Gigantism is a hypersecretion of the Growth hormone(GH) before puberty found in the Anterior Pituitary
Diabetes insipidus is a hyposecretion of the Postierior Pituitary gland
Myxedema is a hyposecretion of the Thyroid
Acromegaly is a hypersecretion of the Growth hormone(GH) after puberty found in the Anterior Pituitary gland
Diabetes mellitus is a hyposecretion which can be type 1 or type found in the Pancreas
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid caused by hyper and hypothyroidism, inflammation, and lack of iodine in the diet


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