Flash Cards

Introduction to Chemistry

Term Definition
Atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
Average Atomic Mass the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
Chemical Bond an interaction that holds atoms or ions together
Chemical Equation a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and products
Chemical Formula a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Chemical Reaction the process in which atoms are rearranged and chemical bonds are broken and formed to produce a chemical change of an substance
Chemical Symbol a one-, two- or three letter abbreviation of the name of an element
Electron Cloud a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
Electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Endothermic Reaction a chemical reaction that requires energy input, usually as heat
Exothermic Reaction a chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings, usually as heat
Group a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties
Law of Conservation of Energy the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Law of Conservation of Mass the law that states the mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
Mass Number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
Metalloid an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
Neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
Nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
Nucleus in physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
Period in chemistry, a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Periodic Table an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
Product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
Proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which identifies the identity of an element
Reactant a substance that participates in a chemical reaction
Valence Electron an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties


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