Term Definition
Earth's Tilt 23.5 degrees and the cause of the seasons.
Apogee The furthest point of the moon's orbit from the Earth.
Perigee The closest point of the moon's orbit from the Earth.
Perihelion The closest point of the Earth's orbit from the sun.
Aphelion The farthest point of the Earth's orbit from the sun.
Elliptical Orbit The shape of the Earth's orbit.
Earth's Revolution The Earth orbits the sun once in 365.24 days.
Earth's Rotation Once in 24 hours, the cause of night and day, and the spinning of Earth on its axis.
Speed of Earth's Rotation 1000 miles per hour.
Satellite The moon is earth’s natural satellite.
Name in order the inner and outer planets of the solar system. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. There are 8 planets.
Light Year The distance light travels in one year
Proxima Centauri The closest star other than the sun to the earth.
Milky Way The galaxy the earth is a part of.
Andromeda The closest galaxy besides the Milky Way to earth.
Pangaea The super-continent that existed 150,000,000 years ago.
Dates of Ice Ages Most recent end of the advance was 17,000 years ago.
Age of the Earth 4.6 billion years.
How do you find protons, neutrons, and electrons using a periodic table? The atomic number equals the number of protons, the number of protons equals the number of electrons ( for a balanced atom), the rounded off atomic mass minus the atomic number equals the number of neutrons.
What is the mass and charge of the following particles?: Protons, electrons, neutrons? Proton: mass=1, charge +, Electron mass=0, charge -, Neutron mass=1, charge =0(no charge).
Atomic Nucleus The central part of an atom.
Energy Levels The area of an atom where electrons occur, also called shell, orbit, rings, cloud.
Exothermic A reaction or change that releases energy.
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture that appears the same throughout; milk.
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture that does not appear the same throughout; oatmeal.
Mixtures Two or more substances mixed but not chemically bonded (combined) together.
Compound Two or more different elements chemically bonded together.
Physical Properties Characteristics of a substance that can be observed; bendability, melting, change of state, changing form or appearance without changing the substance chemically.
Chemical Properties Characteristic of a substance that determine how they will react with other substances chemically. Examples: The ability to combust, tarnish, rust, oxidize, electrolicize.
Electromagnetic Energy Energy that travels as waves through space. Example: light.
Molecule Two or more atoms combined chemically.
Potential energy Energy that is stored, like snow at the top of a mountain.
Kinetic energy The energy of movement, like water flowing down a mountain.
Electrical Energy The energy of the movement of charged particles.
Chemical Energy The energy found in chemical reactions.
Grams The SI measurement for mass
Meters The SI unit that measures the distance between two points.
Liters The SI unit for volume.
SI Units The International Standard of metric measurements.
Density The amount of mass compared to its volume.
Volume The amount of space an object occupies.
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances, the building blocks of matter.
Substance Anything that contains only one pure type of material.
Evaporation The process of water in a liquid state, turning into a gas by using heat.
Condensation The process of water vapor turning back into a liquid.
Precipitation Water falling back to earth.
Freezing When low temperatures make water a solid.
Polarity The Hydrogen sides of water are positive and the Oxygen is negative.
Polar bonds in water molecules The positive charges of the hydrogen atoms of water molecules make the bond between hydrogen and oxygen a polar bond.
Formula of Water H2O
Ground water Water that is stored underground.
Aquifers Long Island’s large areas of groundwater.
Moraine A large hill formed by glaciers.
Out wash Plains The large sandy formations found downhill from moraines.
Runoff Water that flows along the earth’s surface.
Infiltration Water that enters the earth’s surface through the soil.
Percolation The process of water flowing between soil particles.
Stream-bed The bottom of the river.
Friction The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another.
Abrasion The wearing a way of rock due to grinding action.
Turbulence Water that flows in every different direction.
Slope The angle of incline that the water flows down due to gravity.
Load The amount of sediment in a river.
Stalagmite An icicle shaped formation that forms on the floor of a cave.
Stalactite An icicle shaped formation that forms on the roof of a cave.
Delta A sediment deposit formed from silt at the river’s mouth.
Alluvial fan A wide sloping deposit of sediment where a stream leaves a mountain range.
Oxbow Lake A lake formed when a meander gets cutoff.
V-shaped Valley A valley cut by water flowing through the base.
Waterfall The area of a stream or river where it’s slope is vertical.
Meanders The snakelike bends formed in a river from banks being eroded.
Stream A channel along which water flows down a slope they rarely dry up.
Rills Tiny grooves cut in the soil.
Floodplain The area of the river valley the river will cover during a flood.

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