Question Answer
Pahoehoe Fast-moving smooth hot lava that has low viscosity
Shield Volcano A wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
Batholiths A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust
Geothermal Activity The beating of underground water by magma
Magma A molten mixture of rock forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
Island Arc A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep-ocean trench
Viscosity The resistance of a liquid to flowing
Aa Lava that is cooler and slower moving
Cinder Cone A steep, con shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening
Geyser A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals
Hot Spot An area where material from deep within the mantle rises and then melts, forming magma
Compound A substance made of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined
Composite Volcano A tall cone shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layer of ash and other volcanic materials
Caldera The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses
Volcanic Neck A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe
Where do volcanic belts form? Along the boundaries of Earth's plates
Where does a volcano form? Above a hot spot when magma erupts through the crust and reaches the surface
Each substance has a particular set of… physical and chemical properties
Why do some liquids flow more easily then others? Because liquids differ in viscosity
What does the viscosity of magma depend on? Its silica sat_flash_1 and temperature
When a volcano erupts, what does the force of the expanding gases do? Push magma from the magma chamber through the pipe until it flows
What do geologists classify volcanic eruptions as? Quiet and explosive
Geologists use the terms… to describe a volcano's stage of activity Active, dormant, and extinct
What land forms do volcanic eruptions create? Shield, cinder cone, composite volcanoes, and lava plateaus
What features are formed by magma? Volcanic necks, dikes, sills, and batholiths/dome mountains
What are types of geothermal activities that are often found in areas of present or past volcanic activity? Hot springs and geysers
Stress A force that changes the shape or volume of rock
Shearing Pushes in opposite direction
Footwall The block of rock that goes up in a normal fault
Anticline An upward fold in rock formed by compression of earth's crust
P Wave Seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground like an accordian
Mercalli Scale A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause
Seismograph An instrument that records and measures seismic waves
Liquefaction The process of becoming a liquid
Normal Fault A type of fault where the footwall goes up, caused by tension
Reverse Fault A type of fault where the footwall goes down, caused by compression
Syncline A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust
Focus Where rock under stress breaks, creating an earthquake
S Wave Seismic wave that vibrates from side to side as well as up and down
Magnitude A number that is assigned to an earthquake based on the size
Moment Magnitude Scale A rating system that estimates the total energy
Seismogram The paper used on a seismograph
Hanging Wall The block of rock that goes down in a normal fault
Strike – Slip Fault A type of fault in which rocks on each side slide past each other in opposite directions
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus
Surface Wave Seismic wave that form when p and s waves reach earths surface
Richter Scale A rating of an earthquakes magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
Where do faults occur? Along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks
The forces of plate movement can change a flat plain into landforms like… Anticlines, synclines, folded mountains, fault – block mountains, and plateau
What are seismic waves? Waves that carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus, through Earth's interior, and across the surface
What are the three commonly used ways of measuring earthquakes? Mercalli scale, the Richter scale, and the Moment Magnitude scale
What do geologists use seismic waves for? To locate an earthquake's epicenter
How do seismographs measure earthquakes? During an earthquake, seismic waves cause the seismograph's drum to vibrate. but the suspended weight with the pen attached moves very little. Therefore, the pen stays in place and records the drum's vibrations
How do geologists monitor faults? They have developed instruments to measure changes in elevation, tilting of the land surface, and ground movements along faults
What devices provide data used to map faults and detect changes along faults? Seismographs and fault – monitoring devices
How do geologists determine earthquake risk? By locating where faults are active and where the past earthquakes have occurred
What are causes of earthquake damage? Shaking, liquefaction, aftershocks, and tsunamis
Whats the best way to protect yourself during an earthquake? Drop, cover, and hold
Meteoroids Small piece of rock or metal that travels through space
When does an eclipse occur? When the moon's shadow hits earth or earth's shadow hits the moon
What features are on the moon's surface? Maria, craters, and highlands
How was the moon formed? A planet-sized object collided with earth
Geocentic representing earth as the center
Heliocentric representing the sun as the center
Convection Zone Area between stars core and photosphere (inside hot plasma rise)
Sunspot Dark, cool area on the suns surface
Solar Wind Heat from sun
Greenhouse Effect Trapping of suns warmth for planet
Comets Loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles whose orbits are usually very long, narrow ellipses
Kuiper Belt Area of solar system past Neptune
Asteroid Belt The area where asteroids are mostly located
Meteorite A mass of stone or metal that has reached earth from outer space
Photosphere Part of star that gives off heat
Prominence Most Important
Corona Unique gas from sun and stars
Gas Giant a large planet of relatively low density consisting predominantly of hydrogen and helium, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune.
Coma Cloud surrounding head of comet
Oort Cloud Area of solar system beyond Pluto
Meteoroid a small body moving in the solar system
Ellipse Oval shape
Chromosphere a reddish gaseous layer immediately above the photo sphere of the sun or another star.
Solar Flare Burst of radiation from suns surface
Terrestrial planets Earth-like planets made up of rocks or metals with a hard surface
Nucleus Center and most important part of object
Meteor Flying rock in space
What is the difference between the geocentric system and the heliocentric? In the G System: Earth is the center of the revolving planets and stars
In the H System: Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
What did Galileo's discoveries support? Heliocentric model
What did Kepler find? That the orbit of each planet is an ellipse
Describe the sun Its interior consists of the core, radiation zone, and convection zone. Its atmosphere consists of the photosphere, chromosome, and corona
What are the features on or just above the suns surface? Sunspot, prominence, and solar flares
Describe the four inner planets Small and dense and have rocky surfaces
Which planet is the smallest terrestrial planet? Mercury
Whos internal structure is similar to earth's? Venus
What do scientists think was on Mars surface in the distant past? A large amount of liquid water
Which planets are bigger and more massive than earth? Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (dont have solid surfaces)
Which planet is the largest and most massive planet? Jupiter
Uranuss axis of rotation is tilted at an angle of… from the vertical 90 degrees
What do most asteroids do? Revolve around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Where do meteoroids come from? Comets and Asteroids
Weathering Breaking down of rocks and other materials of earths surface
Chemical Weathering Weathering that changes the chemical makeup of rocks
Mechanical weathering Weathering in which the chemical makeup of rocks does not change
Ice Wedging Mechanical weathering caused by the freezing and melting of water
Oxidation Substance Chemical change that occurs when oxygen reacts with another
Hydrolysis Reaction that occurs when minerals with little water sat_flash_1 react with water
Carvonation Chemical reaction that occurs when carbonic acid reacts with certain minerals
Acid Rain Rain containing acids produced by water chemically combing with certain gases
What can changes in temperature do to rocks? Break them apart
Where are most chemical weathering from? Hydrolysis, which is water reacting with water poor substances
What does carbonation do to minerals in rocks? Break down. Plants also produce acids that cause chemical weathering
What is weathering affected by? Moisture and temperature

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