Flash Cards

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes

Question Answer
(1) What is a shield volcano? A broad, domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
(2) What is a cinder cone Volcano? The weakest volcano. They are built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent.
(3) What is a composite volcano? The most powerful. built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
(4) What is a pahoehoe lava flow? Hot, fast moving, fluid, flows like water.
(5) What is a aa lava flow? Cool, moves slowly, has more silica, thick.
(6) What is a pyroclastic lava flow? Flow, most dangerous, composed of gases, cinder, ash, as thick, sticky lava.
(7) What is magma? An extremely hot molten material that contains dissolved gases.
(8) What is lava? Lava that got to the surface.
(9) What is a crater? A "bowl" where lava collects near the vent.
(10) What is a vent? Where magma leaves the vent and gets released at the surface.
(11) What is a side vent? Forms when magma sometimes finds its way out of the volcano a different way, other than the vent.
(12) What is a magma chamber? A big underground chamber where magma rises through the pipe, out of the volcano from it's vent.
(13) What is a pipe? A uneven, narrow crack in the volcano that leads upward, towards the vent and allows magma to reach the surface.
(14) What is a lava flow? A rive of lava that flows down, along the volcano and the land beneath it.
(15) What is a hot spot? An area where magma burns through the crust like a blow torch.
(16) What is a geyser? A jet of very hot water that shoots up, out of the ground.
(17) What does extinct mean? A volcano that will never erupt again.
(18) What is caldera? A large crater that is produced when a volcano empties it's magma chamber.
(19) What is the Ring of Fire? A chain of volcanoes around the pacific plate.
(20) What does dormant mean? A "sleeping" volcano that could erupt again.
(21) What does explosive mean? A type of eruption that produces pyroclastic flows.
(22) What is silica? A combination of oxygen and silicon.
(23) What is a hot spring? A pool of water that is heated up by magma.
(24) What does active mean? A volcano that is erupting or will erupt again very soon.
(25) What does quiet mean? An eruption that produces aa and pyroclastic lava.
(26) What is a volcanic neck? What forms when magma in a volcano's pipe cools off.
(27) What is a batholith? What is formed when a volcano's magma chamber cools off.
(28) What is a divergent plate boundary? A divergent plate boundary moves the crust on top of it way from each other.
(29) What is a convergent plate boundary? A convergent plate boundary moves the crust on top of it into each other.
(30) What is a transform plate boundary? A transform plate boundary slides the crust on top of it across each other.
(31) What is shearing? A type of stress that scrapes rock against each other in opposite directions(transform boundary).
(32) What is tension? A type of stress that stretches rock apart (divergent boundary).
(33) What is compression? A type of stress that squeezes rock (convergent boundary).
(34) What is a strike- slip fault? A fault that slides against both sides in opposite directions (shearing and transform boundary).
(35) What is a normal fault? A fault that pulls away from it's sides (tension and divergent boundary).
(36) What is a reverse fault? A fault that pushes it's sides into each other (compression and convergent boundary).
(37) What is folding? The bending of rock upwards and downwards.
(38) What is an anticline? An "up" fold caused by compression stress
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(39) What is a syncline? A "down" fold caused by compression stress
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(40) What is a plateau? A flat area of high land
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(41) What is a tidal wave? Large waves that are caused by earthquakes.
(42) What is a tsunami? A series of tidal waves cased by the moon's gravitational pull.
(43) What are the three main scales? The Mercalli Scale, the Richter Scale, and the Moment Magnitude Scale.
(44) What are the three seismic waves? P waves, S waves, and Surface waves.
(45) What is stress? A force that changes the amount of space or the shape of a rock.
(46) What is deformation? Any change in a rock's volume or shape that was cased by stress.
(47) What is the focus? The exact point where an earthquake happened (in the mantle).
(48) What is the epicenter? The point directly above the focus where the earthquake happened (on the crust).




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