Flash Cards

Review 6th grade

Question Answer
Pangeaea the name of the singe landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
compression stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
tension stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
shearing stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Earthquake the shaking of the Earth's crust, moving as a result of the plates underneath being in motion
Richter Scale A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a mechanical seismograph. Used in the late 1980's, but is commonly referred to today. The scale used now is the moment magnitude scale (electronic seismograph)
Seismic Waves a vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake (p-waves, s-waves, and surface waves)
Fault-Block Mountain a mountain that forms where two normal faults lift up another block of rock
Shield Volcanoes a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of thin lava formed by quiet eruptions
Cinder Cone Volcano a steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders and bombs (thick lava from explosive eruptions) piled up around a volcano's opening
Composite Volcano a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic material
Magma the molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases and water from the mantle
crystal the shape a mineral takes because its atoms are arranged in a definite pattern
Moh's Scale a scale for determining the hardness of a mineral, named after Friedrich Moh
Silicates any member of the largest group of minerals
cleavage the property of some minerals that causes them to easily break along a smooth, flat surface
fracture the property of some minerals that causes them to break unevenly or along a curved surface
luster the way minerals reflect light
What are examples of luster? glassy, earthly, waxy, metallic
streak the colored powder left behind when a mineral is rubbed against an unglazed tile
hardness the property of minerals in which they are tested to see how easily they can be scratched
diamond hardest known mineral. It can scratch all other substances and is rated a 10 on Moh's scale.
talc the softest known mineral that flakes easily when scratched by a fingernail.
What is talc used in? powders
quartz a mineral in the silicate family that is used in watches, computers, glass and as gemstones
ore a rock in which a useful metal is found that can the3n be crushed and melted to remove the useful metal
Igneous rock a rock that is formed from magma or lava that has cooled and hardened
Intrusive rock a type of igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath earth's surface
extrusive rock a type of igneous rock that forms from lava on the earth's surface
sedimentary rock a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed together
What are the 4 processes of sedimentary rock? 1) erosion
2) deposition
3) compaction
4) cementation
What is erosion? the process in which wind or water carries away fragments of rock
What is deposition? the process in which fragments of rock that have been carried by erosion settle in one place
What is compaction? a process in which sediments are squeezed together by pressure
What is cementation? the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together
metamorphic rock a type of rock that forms when existing rock is changed by heat, pressure and chemical reactions into another rock
Gneiss a metamorphic rock that formed from granite
Rock Cycle the process in which rocks change into other types of rock or magma
weather (as a verb) to break down due to weather conditions (like erosion due to wind, water, etc)

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