Flash Cards

Apologia Exploring Creation Science Nervous Sys. Mod. 16

Term Definition
Nerve cells are called ___. neurons
Neurons can be thought of as the _____ of the brain. “circuit chips”
______ connect neurons to one another. Neural pathways
Explain how neurons communicate with one another. By sending electrical signals down those pathways, just like the chips on the printed circuit board communicate by sending electrical signals down electronic pathways.
The neurons cannot function properly without the help of _______. neuroglia cells
What do the neuroglia cells do? Support the neurons and help them communicate with one another.
The average adult brain is composed of ______ neurons. 100 billion
The brain is the central focus of the human _______. nervous system
What make neurons look so different from other cells are the ______ that project from the cell body. fibers
What are the two types of fibers in the nerve? dendrites and axons
The axon is often covered by a fatty insulator called a __________. myelin sheath
The end of the axon is full of tiny sacs that contain chemicals we call ________. neurotransmitters
An electrical signal is traveling toward the cell body of a neuron. Is it traveling along a dendrite or an axon? Dendrites carry signals toward the neuron cell body, while axons carry signals away from the neuron cell body. Thus, the signal is traveling along a dendrite.
A neuron can stay alive even if it cannot make neurotransmitters. However, it is essentially useless without them. Why? Without neurotransmitters, the neuron cannot communicate with other cells.
The nervous system is split into two components. What are they called? the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Memorize and Label The Human Nervous System Diagram: Appendix A, page 10(Worth 11 points). See Back of the book for Diagram if you need to.
The brain actually floats in the skull, which contains about half a cup of a fluid. This same fluid is found surrounding the spinal cord, so it is called _________. cerebrospinal fluid
Define cerebrospinal fluid. This colorless fluid surrounds the spinal cord, and is actually produced by neuroglia cells in the brain and contains several chemicals.
In a procedure called a ________, a trained professional will stick a needle in between two vertebrae so as to reach the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord. lumbar puncture
Know and label the "Cross Section" of the Human Brain: Know the side view of the Brain. (9 points)
The brain is divided into halves, which we call ________. hemispheres
The hemispheres are separated by a “groove” called the _________. longitudinal cerebral fissure
The folded tissue that surrounds the outside of the brain is called the _________. cerebrum
The outer layer of the cerebrum is covered in _______. gray matter
Underneath the cerebrum's gray matter is ________. white matter
The lighter color of white matter comes from ______________. the myelin sheaths that cover the axons
The cerebellum has a lot of functions, mostly oriented around muscle movements. For example, it plays a large role in helping you _________. to stand in one place
What does the brain stem do? It controls the more basic functions of the human body, such as breathing, heart rate, and the pressure at which blood is pumped through the body.
An unfortunate man is in a car accident and his spinal cord is severed at the waist. Will the man be able to move his arms? What about his legs? The man will be able to move his arms but not his legs
What does CNS stand for? Central Nervous System
What does PNS stand for? Peripheral Nervous System
One part of the brain is significantly larger in humans than in any other vertebrates. What part of the brain would you think that is? Since humans are intellectually superior to other vertebrates, the cerebrum is significantly larger.
If you have damage on the right side of his brain, will it effect your speech? Why or why not? No, because the left side is responsible for speech.
Would the blood-brain barrier work without the proteins in between the capillary cells? Why or why not? The blood-brain barrier wouldn't work without the proteins in between the cells of the capillaries. Those proteins seal the capillaries like gaskets, keeping the blood and fluid inside.
A nerve is made up of cell bodies of neurons. True or False False
The system of nerves that carries instructions from the CNS to the body's smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands. Autonomic nervous system
The system of nerves that carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS. Sensory nervous system
The system of nerves that carries instructions from the CNS to the skeletal muscles. Somatic motor nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is composed of two parts. What are they? the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division
Define dilated. The technical way to say "your pupil gets very large".
When you get cold and your autonomic nervous system increases your heart rate and blood pressure, which division (parasympathetic or sympathetic) is causing the change? The sympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system is at work in this case.
The sense of taste is also known as the _____. gustatory sense
If you stick out your tongue and look at it in the mirror, you will see tiny “bumps.” These bumps are called ________. papillae
In some of these papillae, there are tiny holes called taste pores that lead to microscopic clusters of cells called ________. taste buds
What are the "five" basic taste sensations? sweet, salty, sour, umami, and bitter
What taste sensation describes umami? The taste of amino acids or "savory".
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive that was developed in 1907. Used in a lot of Asian cooking, it tends to give food a more savory flavor. Which of the five basic taste sensations does it stimulate? It stimulates the umami sensation.
When you and I inhale the chemicals that a flower releases into the air, some of them reach the roof of the nasal cavity and dissolve in the moist mucus that covers it. What is this part of the nose called? olfactory epithelium
____________ cells, have long “hairs” that stick into the mucus. Olfactory sensory
The nerves that pass the signals from the olfactory cells to the brain are a part of the ___________, the part of the brain that deals with memories and emotions. limbic system
An air purifying system claims to clean “all the chemicals” out of the air and leave behind a “pleasant scent” like that of the outdoors after a thunderstorm. What is wrong with this claim? Without chemicals in the air, there can be no scent.
When light strikes the eye, it first passes through the transparent _________. cornea

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