Flash Cards

Apologia Exploring Creation Science Human Respiratory and Circulatory Systems

Term Definition
The human circulatory system is composed primarily of the ___. heart and blood vessels
What does the human circulatory system do? , transports oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues in the human body. It picks up waste from the body's cells and transports them to organs that can get rid of them.
The respiratory system is primarily composed of the ___. lungs
The circulatory system carries all these things in the ___. blood
arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
capillaries Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and cells and are located between arteries and veins.
pulmonary trunk Large arteries that take blood away from the heart and splits into two arteries that take the blood to the lungs.
pulmonary viens Large veins that take the blood back to the heart.
aorta Large artery that blood leaves the heart through.
superior vena cava and inferior vena cava Blood is returned to the heart in these large veins.
arterioles Smaller arteries that branch into tiny capillaries.
oxygenated blood Blood that has rich oxygen
deoxygenated blood Blood that doesn't have much oxygen.
cardiac muscle This heart muscle is controlled involuntarily (like a smooth muscle) but has many of the visible characteristics of a skeletal muscle.
The human heart is a ___ chambered heart. four
All ___ and ___ have four chambered hearts. mammals and birds
What are the chambers called? right and left atrium, and right and left ventricle
Why do different animals have different kinds of hearts? Different animals require different things from their circulatory system.
Be able to label the respiratory system. See Mom for respiratory system diagram.
pulmonary arteries Sends the deoxygenated blood to the capillaries of both lungs.
pulmonary veins Dumps blood into the left atrium, which then contracts and sends the blood into the left ventricle.
When the left atrium is mostly empty, is the right atrium mostly full or mostly empty? What about the right ventricle? When the left atrium is mostly empty, the right atrium will also be mostly empty, and both ventricles (including the right ventricle) will be mostly full.
cardiac cycle The entire cycle of a heartbeat – the contraction of the two atria (plural of “atrium”), the relaxation of the atria and the contraction of the ventricles, and the relaxation of the ventricles.
blood plasma More than half of any given sample of blood is made up of a pale yellowish liquid.
kidneys The levels of many chemicals in the blood plasma are carefully controlled by these.
There are so many red blood cells in our blood that roughly ___ red blood cells die every second in a typical adult. 2,000,000
hemoglobin This protein is inside red blood cells and receives oxygen from the lungs. It then carries the oxygen until the blood reaches cells that need it.
Blood cells are manufactured by __. bone marrow
antibodies Chemicals released into the blood and that fight the pathogen.
platelets The smallest “cells” in your blood. They are not true cells; rather, they are pieces of a kind of white blood cell.
blood clotting This vital process keeps us from bleeding to death when we are cut.
When the platelets clump together and stick to the edges of an injury, it makes a soft clot, called a _____, over the hole. platelet plug
coagulation a host of chemicals from the blood and the injured tissue work together to transform certain proteins in the blood plasma into a threadlike protein.
The tubes in the lungs that carry air are called __. bronchial tubes
The air travels from the mouth or nose into the ____. trachea
First, z little more than half of the air travels through the right branch into the __. right lung
Second, the rest of the air travels through the left branch into the ___. left lung
right primary bronchus Tube that air flows through on the right branch.
left primary bronchus Tube that air flows through on the left branch.
bronchioles Tiny bronchial tubes in each lung.
alveoli Little sacs at the end of the bronchioles.
emphysema One of the diseases associated with cigarette smoking. The alveoli grows large and merge, making larger alveoli. This results in poor oxygen transfer to the blood.
Bronchitis is a breathing disorder that plagues many people. Based on the name, what part of the lungs is affected by bronchitis? The bronchial tubes
Air travels either through the ___or the ___ into the pharynx. nasal cavity or oral cavity
There are certain plants (called “bryophytes”) that do not have xylem and phloem. Compared to plants that do have them, would you expect bryophytes to be larger or smaller? Bryophytes are small compared to other plants. Without xylem and phloem, there is no way to transport nutrients.
The nasal cavity is lined with a sticky substance called ___. mucus
When particles are trapped by the mucus in your nasal cavity, they are pushed along by tiny hairs called ___. cilia
Air travels through the larynx into the ___. trachea
When a “tracheotomy” is performed, an opening is cut through the neck and into the trachea. At that point, the person breathes through the hole in the trachea. People who have tracheotomies cannot speak unless they block that hole. Why? The trachea is below the vocal cords. If air passes in and out of the hole, the air never passes over the vocal cords.
When the ___contracts, it pushes down on the nearby organs, pulling the lungs down with them. This causes the lungs to expand, which sucks air into them. diaphragm
Your larynx is often called your ___. voice box
vocal chords Two thin folds of tissue that stretch across the sides of the larynx.
Fish have to extract the oxygen dissolved in the water. They use ____ instead of lungs. gills
xylem Tubes that transport water up from the roots to the rest of the parts of the plant.
phloem These tubes in plants are responsible for carrying food from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
veins Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
Blood is flowing through a vein in the leg. Is it flowing up or down the leg? It is flowing UP the leg.
Wherever you find living cells in the body, you will find ______________ very near capillaries
Be able to label parts of the human heart. See Mom for heart diagram.
The heart of a certain full-grown animal has deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood mixed together inside the heart. Is the animal endothermic or ectothermic? Ectothermic
Suspended within the plasma are three main types of cells: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets
What are the pieces of white blood cells that aid in the process of blood clotting? platelets
Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic condition that causes the body to produce an altered form of the protein hemoglobin. Which type of blood cell is affected by sickle-cell anemia? Only red blood cells contain hemoglobin, so sickle-cell anemia must affect them.
There is a rare problem during the birth of some babies in which the baby's blood platelets are destroyed by an inconsistency between the baby's blood and the mother's blood. When this happens, the baby can die from even the slightest injury. Why? Without enough blood platelets, the child's blood cannot clot properly. Even the slightest injury can cause the child to bleed to death.
Which would be more efficient in terms of getting oxygen into the blood: a lung with lots of little alveoli or a lung with fewer, larger alveoli? Many small alveoli are better than a few large ones.

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