Flash Cards

Apologia Exp. Ceation Human Digestive System Mod 13

Term Definition
Digestion The process by which an organism breaks down its food into small units that can be absorbed by the body
Ingestion Starts the process of digestion/ When you eat or drink.
Saliva The spit in your mouth that breaks down starch.
Chemical digestion Second part of digestion/changes the chemical nature of food in order for it to be absorbed into your blood.
Physical digestion First part of digestion/breaks food up into little pieces.
Physical and Chemical digestion The two components of digestion.
Which part of the digestive process are your teeth are a major participant of? Physical digestion
What are the parts of the Human Digestive System? Mouth, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Liver, Bile, Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Large intestine, Small intestine, Rectum, Anus
How long does it typically take to digest food? Around 13 hours
Label the Digestive System ask mom for paper
Alimentary Canal is also called ___. Digestive tract
How long does it take for your body to get the nutrients you eat? Within 3-8 hours
name the organs that are a part of the digestive system but not a part of the alimentary canal. Gall bladder, liver, salivary glands, and pancreas
One organ of the digestive tract, however, has many blood vessels that pick up nutrients in order to distribute them throughout the body. Which organ has a lot of these blood vessels? The small intestine has a lot of these blood vessels.
Gingiva Soft, shock absorbent gums in your mouth.
Canine Teeth used to tear food.
Incisor Teeth that are sharp and used to cut food.
Premolars and molars Teeth used to crush and grind food.
Wisdom Teeth on each side of jaw that appear much later than your other teeth.
Conditioned response Ivan Pavlov's theory that a body could be conditioned to produce saliva using senses other than taste and smell.
Describe Pavlov's dog experiment He rang a bell every time he fed his dog. Eventually, the dog's salivary glands would produce saliva whenever he rang the bell, even when there was no food to eat.
Bolus Soft lump of food after it has been cut, crushed, and ground up in your mouth.
Soft palate Part of mouth that rises, sealing off the nasal cavity so you can move the bolus (chewed up food) into the pharynx.
Epiglottis Small flap of cartilage that covers the larynx.
Would you expect carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores to not have canine teeth? Herbivores
Why do you cough when you inhale smoke? The smoke gets into your larynx, and the little particles in the smoke irritate the sensitive lining of the larynx, making you cough.
Cardiac sphincter Part of the esophagus that opens to allow food to land in the stomach.
Rugae Folds on the stomach wall that allow the stomach to expand.
Gastric juice Liquid in the stomach that mixes with the bolus (chewed up food).
Hydrochloric acid Most important chemical in the gastric juice. It kills bacteria, activates digestion, and helps dissolve food.
Heartburn Result of excess stomach acid leaking up and out of the stomach into the esophagus.
Acids and bases Two types of chemicals that are opposites of one another, so they cancel each other out.
Neutralization When acids neutralize the properties of bases.
Pyloric sphincter Ring of muscles in the small intestine.
Duodenum The first part of the small intestine where the rest of digestion takes place.
Intestinal villi Millions of projections that make up the inside wall of the small intestine.
What are the three parts of the large intestine? Cecum, colon, and rectum
Where in the digestive tract does most of the absorption of nutrients occur? Small intestine
Does the stomach have any bacteria in it? No, bacteria can't live in your stomach because of the stomach acid.
Appendix Little, worm shaped tube that branches off the large intestine at the cecum.
Does the appendix serve any purpose in the human body? Yes, it gives a place for some bacteria to go when bad bacteria has caused illness the intestines after a bad illness.
Vestigial organ A term that some uninformed scientists call a useless leftover body part that no longer has a purpose and is part of the process of evolution.
Glycogen A polysaccharide that animals typically use to store excess carbohydrates.
If you must have your gall bladder removed, what macronutrient must be reduced in your diet? Fat
What happens in the gall bladder? It concentrates bile and injects it into the small intestine.
What does bile do? It helps you digest fat.
Suppose a person's liver is converting fats and amino acids into glucose. What can you conclude about the amount of glycogen that is currently available? There is probably not a lot of glycogen available to the body
Fats and amino acids are converted into ____ if glycogen is not readily available. glucose
Vitamin A chemical substance that body needs in small amounts to stay healthy.
Minerals Inorganic crystalline substances from naturally in the earth.
Micronutrients Nutrients like vitamins and minerals needed in small doses.
Anemia When your body does not have enough iron.
Iron Mineral that transports oxygen throughout your body.
Osteoporosis When the bones become weak and break easily due to lack of calcium.
Certain nutritional companies sell pills with amino acids in them. Sometimes they are called vitamin pills. Why is that name wrong? Amino acids are not micronutrients. Remember, amino acids are the building blocks of PROTEINS. Thus, they are macronutrients, not vitamins.

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