Question Answer
Compare the number of chromosomes in a human skin cell to the number of chromosomes in a human egg cell? the egg cell has half the number of chromosome than in the skin cell.
What characteristics could you use to identify a pair of homologous chromosomes? size, shape, gene location.
What are the benefits of genetic diversity? survival advantages.
How does a zygote become an embryo? it undergoes mitosis.
What is the difference between chromosomes in meiosis I and mitosis? meiosis I has homologous chromosomes meiosis II has sister chromatids.
How does the number of chromosomes in metaphase of duplicated chromosomes in metaphase II of meiosis? they are the same
Explain how crossing over can result in variation. • 8 mill combos possible for 23 pairs in any egg or sperm cell
• 70 trill diff. zygotes possible from combo of 1 sperm & egg cell when fertilization occurs
Give an example of a chromosome in mutation. down syndrome
Give an example of a genetic disorder. leukemia
Whole chromosomes can be lost of added during meiosis. Explain how the can occur. when homologue chromosomes fail to separate or when sister chromatids fail to seperate
Explain why meiosis is important for the survival of organisms. the offspring are genetically different from each other compared to their parents or other members of their species. meaning, they may be able to avoid getting a certain disease which has been passed among their other family members.
Explain how you can tell weather a sperm cell is in meiosis I or meiosis II. looking at the number of sister chromatids
What stage of the cell cycle would be best to use for karyotyping? Explain. The best is metaphase of mitosis. All the chromosomes are lined up at the center of the cell.
What are two conditions that must be met for sexual reproduction to occur? Male gamete must meet female gamete and fertilize the egg cell.
Name and briefly describe the three stages of sexual reproduction. Mating, fertilization and development.
What is internal fertilization? When the sperm and egg meet inside a females body.
What is external fertilization? When the sperm and egg meet outside of the partners.
Why is it important that only one sperm fertilizes an egg. So that there is an equal amount of chromosomes from both partners.
Why is water- containing fluid necessary for animals that reproduce sexually? Transports gametes for animals that have eggs fertilized eternally.
What is the function of the pollen tube? delivers sperm cells to egg cells in plants.
Descibe the difference in how flowering plants and cone-bearing plants sexually reproduce. Flowering plants have pollen carried by pollinators. Cone- bearing plants use wind as transportation for pollen
List the folling stages of human development in order.
a) blastula
b) zygote
c) fetus
d) grastula
e) morula
zygote, morula, blastula, grastula, fetus
Match the tissue types or organs to the embryonic layer from which they develop.
a) ectoderm (i) skin
b) endoderm (ii) nervous system
c) mesoderm (iii) skeletal system(iv) kidneys (v) digestive system
(vi) lungs
a) ectoderm- skin, nervous system
b) endoderm- digestive system, lungs
c) mesoderm- skeletal system, kidneys
What is the name for the female plant structure that stores egg cells? ovules
How do animals reproduce using external fertilization increase the chances of an egg cell and sperm cell meeting? they produce large clouds of sperm and eggs so when they meet there is a larger chance that the egg will be fertilized
How do both a bee and plant it visits benefit from pollination? bees pollinating plants helps the plant because it spreads the seed.
Why would a plant pollinated by a bat not require colourful flowers? Bat's don’t see colors, instead the flower’s fragrance attracts these pollinators.
How do animals transport seeds to different locations? Animals may eat and then purposely move the seeds around for the winter. Also seeds can stick to animals fur.
what is infertility? it is the inability to have a baby
what is a surrogate mother? becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child for someone else to raise
what is artificial insemination? involves collecting sperm from male and injecting into female
what is assisted reproductive technologies? technologies used to achieve fertilization and pregnancy
what is gamete intrafallopian transfer? egg cell is mixed with sperm and injected into fallopian tubes
what is in vitro fertilization? procedure to treat specific fertility problems by fertilizing an egg cell in a petri dish
intracytoplasmic sperm injection specialized procedure in which single sperm is injected into an egg cell
what are the stages of embryotic development? ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
in fetus the brain and spinal cord are starting to form at… four weeks
fetal movements are felt at… sixteen weeks
embryotic development occurs during… the first and second month after fertilization
human body cells have how many chromosomes? 46
meiosis I starts with diploid cell and ends with two haploid cells
meiosis II starts with 2 diploid cells and ends with four haploid cells
sexual reproduction always produces identical offspring
Who are astronomers? studies objects in space
What is the big bang theory? Event that took place 13.7 billion years ago, an event that gave rise to all energy and matter in the universe
What are galaxies? collections of stars
radiation energy transmitted in waves that can be picked up anywhere in space
spectroscope an instrument that can separate white light into its wave lengths of colour
red shift stars are moving away from you, wavelengths get longer
celestial bodies sun, stars, moon, and planets
what does it mean when wavelengths are getting longer if a star is moving away from you
wavelengths that are becoming compressed stars that are moving toward you
the splitting of a single parent cell into two equal parts that have the same copies of genetic material binary fission
group of rapidly dividing cells develops on an organism and breaks away and develops a new organism budding
a small piece of an organism breaks away and forms a new individual fragmentation
parent organism produces spores single cells that can develop into individuals by repeated mitosis spore formation
special cells, divide repeatedly to form structures that develop that is identical to parent vegetative reproduction
identicle genetic copy of its parent clone
reproductive cells that develop into new individuals by repeated mitosis spores
reproduction that only requires one parent asexual reproduction
bacteria reproductive asexually by:
A: budding
B: fragmentation
C: binary fission
D: cloning
binary fission
a key advantage of asexual reproduction
A: offspring compete for food and space
B: large numbers of offspring reproduce quickly
C: extreme temperatures can wipe out colonies
D: offspring are genetic clones
large numbers of offspring reproduce quickly
disadvantages of asexual reproduction
A: can't survive when predators increase
B: large colonies can out-compete other organisms for nutrients and water
C: large numbers of offspring produce slowly
D: extreme temperatures can wipe out colonies
extreme temperatures can wipe out entire colonies
asexual reproduction requires
A: only one parent to produce offspring
B: two parents
C: combination of parents
D: two clones
only one parent
which stage is the longest in the cell cycle?
A: interphase
B: mitosis
C: cytokinesis
D: DNA replication
phase of mitosis where chromosomes line up across middle of cell
A: anaphase
B: metaphase
C: prophase
D: telophase
phase of mitosis where duplicated chromosomes form into X-shape is
A: anaphase
B: metaphase
C: prophase
D: telophase
techniques developed to replace mutated genes gene therepy
mutation that doesn't affect the organism neutral mutation
a mutation that harms the organism negative mutation
a change in the genetic mutation gene mutation
mutation the benefits the organism positive mutation

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