Flash Cards

Unit 8: Space Test Review for Science 1 for the International Student

Question Answer
Universe meaning Everything that exists in space
Science History 1. Geocentric by Ptolemy in 2nd century AD
2. Heliocentric by Copernicus in 1500s
3. Brahe tried to prove geocentric
4. Galileo invented telescope
5. Kepler foudn that Earth orbit = elliptical
Difference between geocentric and heliocentric 1. Geocentric = earth is universe center
2. Heliocentric = sun is universe center
What is the importance of the Science Revolution Started with Copernicus (heliocentric) ended with Isaac Newton (Physics)
– prove/improve traditional ideas, leading to great discovery
Stars: Giant balls of gas held together by gravity
Star formation Nebula = before a star = a large mass of gas and dust
Stars form when nebula collapse and pulls inward
Supernova = end star = explosion of the outershell of a star
Star types: B-type blue, short life, mostly live in spiral galaxies' arms
Star types: O-type blue, short life, mostly live in spiral galaxies' arms
Star types: Red live longest, mostly live in elliptical galaxies
Star types: Blue ( what is it) live short, O&B type, mostly live in spiral galaxies
Blackholes: What are they? remains of a massive star
Blackholes: How are they formed? After a supernova explosion
Blackholes: What do they pull in? Everything; all matters around it
Blackholes: How big can they get? billions of times bigger than our sun.
Blackholes: Where are they said to be found? In the ceneter of galaxy
Blackholes: What is the point of no return? The event horizon
Blackholes: How do scientists know they exist? Gravitational lensing
Planets: What is a planet A body that orbits stars
Planets: How many planets are in our solar system? 8
Planets: What is a dwarf planet? 1. Orbits sun
2. not moon
3. sufficient mass
4. has gravitational pull
5. orbital path not clear
Moons: What is a moon A small body that orbits a planet
Moons: How many moons are in our solar system? + 150
Mercury important fact Mercury is the smalles planet with no moon
Mercury location in solar system closest to sun
Mercury suface Mercury's surface is similiar to the moon's
lots of craters
has ridges, highlands, mountains, plains
color gray
has basins filled with magma
why Mercury is interesting smallest planet
no wind erosion
very thin exosphere
resemble's earth's moon
bumped into our moon
Jupiter: feature to remember Jupiter is the gas giant that is closest to Earth, and Jupiter has more moons than any other planet
Jupiter: location in the solar system 5th from sun
Jupiter: surface not solid,
large electric bar magnet,
magnet field 20,000 times stronger than earth,
89.8% Hydrogen, 10.2% Helium,
Why Jupiter is interesting largest planet
1,300 Earths could fit inside Jupiter
has 3 rings
Pluto: feature to remember It used to be classified as a planet, but is now a dwarf planet
Pluto: location in the solar system 9th; furthest from sun
What is Pluto's surface? icy,
98% nitrogen, with small amount of methan and carbon dioxide,
exact surface is unknown,
surface color is always changing,
Pluto core is made of iron, nickel, and alby
Why Pluto is interesting only planet not yet visited by space craft
considered dwarf planet
has unusual orbit
Saturn: feature to remember Saturn is the famous for its rings of ice, dust, and rock
Saturn location in the solar system 6th from sun
Saturn surface Hydrogen = 96%, Helium 3%, with ammonia, acetylene, ethane, phophine, methane
outside surface = liquid,
core = rocky,
Why Saturn is interesting 2nd largest planet
least dense planet, less dense than water
no oxygen
orbits slowly, because made of gas
Neptune feature to remember It is known for its gread dark spot, has 13 moons
Neptune location in the solary system 8th planet from sun
What is Neptune's surface? gas,
atmosphere = hydrogen & helium,
mantel = hot, dense liquid = water, ammonia, methane,
core = hot rock, ice
Why Neptune is interesting 3rd largest planet in mass
4th largest in diameter
1 of the 4 gas giants in our solar system
stormiest planet
Mars: feature to remember Also known as the red planet
Mars: location in the solar system, 4th planet from sun
Mars surface dry, barren wasteland created by many old volcanoes and crater
has a rocky body like earth
Polar ice caps that grow and recede depending on season
Color of mars = red because of iron
has tectonci plates
95% Carbon dioxide, 3% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon
What makes Mars interesting tallest mountain in solar system = Olympus Mons
Deepest canyon = Valles Marinetis
Venus feature to remember Venus rotates the opposite direction of most planets, its day is longer than its year
Venus location from the sun 2nd from the sun
Venus surface 6 mountain ranges
Maxwell is highest point
ring like structures
raised areas where ridges and falleys form in different direction
Why is Venus interesting can rain down sulfuric acid making it inhapitable
we can see it with nakad eye during day
Uranus: feature to remember Uranus is located in the milky way galaxy. It is between Saturn and Neptune
Uranus Location in the solar system 7th
uranus surface not solid
like Jupiter
from ice, gas, liquids
second most dense
blue because of methane
2% methane
has rocks to make rings
Why is Uranus interesting spins on side,
ice giant,
coldest planet,
core is size of earth,
moon named after Shakespeare and Alexander Pope,
Uranus can be ween with nakad eye
What cause Seasons Seasons are caused by the earth's tilted axis
Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented towards the sun at different times of the year
Moons: Phases: Blue Moon When two full moons occur in a single month
Moons: Phases: Crescent Moon A crescent moon is part way between a half moon and a new moon
Moons: Phases: Full Moon A full moon appears as an entire circle in the sky
Moons: Phases: Gibbous Moon A gibbous moon is between a full moon and a half moon
Moons: Phases: Half Moon A half moon looks like half a circle
Moons: Phases: New Moon When you can not see the moon
Moons: Moonrise It rises 30 to 70 minutes later each day. New moons rise at the same time as the sun, and the full moon rises when the sun sets. That is why you can see the moon during the day.
Galaxies: What are they large group of stars, gas, and dust helt together by gravity
Galaxies: What is the name of our Galaxy Milky Way
Galaxies: How many galaxies do scientists think there are? + 170 billion galaxies
Galaxies: How are they measured? light years
Galaxies: Spiral resemble pinwheel
have bulge at center
arms that curve outward
contains O&B stars
Galaxies: Elliptical oval-shaped
no central bulge
older & appear more red
little gas & dust to from new stars
contains red stars
Galaxies: Irregular no certain shpae or structure
contains normal galaxy characteristics
Sun The solar interior, from the inside out, is made up of the core, radiative zone and the convective zone.
The strength of the sun's magnetic field is typically only about twice as strong as Earth's field.
There are many sunspots.
Important in culture
What is an asteroid a small rocky body that has an irregular shape and orbits a star
what is a comet a celestial body of ice and dust, having a long elliptical orbit and thought to come from the Oort Cloud
what is a light year the distance light travels in one year (9.4 trillion km)
what are gas giants an enourmous planet composed of mostly gases and liquids, much larger than Earth and likely without a solid surface (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)
terrestrial planets Terrestrial planets are Earth-like planets made up of rocks or metals with a hard surface a?? making them different from other planets that lack a solid surface.(Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.)
Planets in order My Very Enormous Mother Jiggles Simultaneously Uncontrolably, Nasty
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
What is a year 1 orbit around the sun
What is a day? 1 full spin on the planets' axis
What is the importance of gravity? Gravity holds everything together, without it everything would be random and all the planets would crash into each other, causing us to die.

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