Flash Cards

Heredity- Unit 8

Question Answer
What is heredity? the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next
Who is Gregor Mendel? he studied patterns of inheritance using pea plants
What is meiosis? it is cell division to create sex cells (the egg and sperm have 1/2 of the number of chromosomes as somatic cells do)
What is a chromosome? a coiled structure of DNA that contains 1,000's of genes
What is a gene? a section of DNA that codes for a particular trait
What is an Allele? it is a form of a trait and each gene has 2
Where do Allele's come from? one allele comes from "mom" and one allele comes from "dad"
How many allele's do organisms have? they have 2 alleles for EVERY TRAIT
What is a Dominant Allele? it will always "show" if it is present and it is represented by a capital letter
What is a Recessive Allele? it will only "show" when paired with another recessive allele and it is represented by a lowercase letter
What is Phenotype? the "physical" trait
What is Genotype? the "genetic" trait (ex: RR, Rr, rr)
What is heterozygous? (hybrid) 2 different alleles (Rr)
What is homozygous? (pure) 2 of the same alleles (RR, rr)
What is ratio? the probability that offspring will have a certain trait (always out of 4)
What does meiosis create? it creates the egg and sperm (sex cells/gametes)
What do the egg and sperm hold? the sperm holds one of the two types of alleles and the egg holds one of the two types of alleles
What is a Punnett Square? it shows the probability that offspring will inherit certain traits

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